Journals / JRM / Vol.8, No.9


    Preparation of an Abrasive Grinding Wheel Based on Tannin Resin CrossLinked by Furfuryl Alcohol, Urea and Glyoxal

    Jinxing Li1, Jun Zhang1,*, Yunxia Zhou1, Zhaoling Zhou1, Hisham Essawy2, Xiaojian Zhou1,*, Guanben Du1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1019-1032, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.012374
    Abstract Simple bio-based abrasive grinding wheel based on thermosetting resin matrix was developed starting with condensed tannin and furfuryl alcohol, which are mainly derived from forest and agricultural products like tree barks, wheat and crops. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) signified the acidic conditions are quiet efficient for the reaction of furfuryl alcohol, urea and glyoxal all together and the -CH2-NH- and -CH2-O-CH(OH)- groups are predominating in cross-linking of the tannin-furfuryl alcohol-urea-glyoxal (TFUG) resin. The strengthening contribution of the tannin was also confirmed by the preservation of its distinct crystallinity using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis… More >


    The Role of Biochar to Enhance Anaerobic Digestion: A Review

    Shuai Tang1, Zixin Wang2, Zhidan Liu1, Yuanhui Zhang2, Buchun Si1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1033-1052, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.011887
    Abstract Biochar, one of the products of thermochemical conversion of biomass, possesses specific physiochemical properties such as conductivity, pore adsorption, surface functional groups, and cation exchange capacity. Anaerobic digestion (AD) as a classical bio-wastes conversion technology, suffers from inhibitions, process instability, and methanogenic inefficiency which limit its effi- ciency. With the advantages of pH buffering, functional microbes enrichment, inhibitors alleviating, and direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) accelerating, biochar suggests a promising application as additives for AD. Herein, this paper reviewed the noting physicochemical properties of biochar, and discussed its roles and related mechanisms in AD. Further, this paper highlighted the advantages… More >


    Influence of Aspect Ratio on Rolling Shear Properties of Fast-Grown Small Diameter Eucalyptus Lumber

    Tao Gui1, Shichen Cai1, Zhiqiang Wang1,*, Jianhui Zhou2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1053-1066, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.011645
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Developments on Biobased Materials and Composites)
    Abstract Eucalyptus is a major fast-grown species in South China, which has the potential for producing structural wood products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT). Aspect ratio (board width vs. board thickness) of eucalyptus lumbers is small due to the small diameter of fast-grown eucalyptus wood. To evaluate its rolling shear modulus and strength for potential CLT applications, three-layer hybrid CLT shear block specimens with different aspect ratios (2,4,6), were tested by planar shear test method. Digital image correlation (DIC) was employed to measure the rolling shear strain distribution and development during the planar shear tests. The mean values of rolling shear… More >


    Novel Mycelium-Based Biocomposites (MBB) as Building Materials

    Zinta Zimele1,*, Ilze Irbe2, Juris Grinins2, Oskars Bikovens2, Anrijs Verovkins2, Diana Bajare1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1067-1076, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09646
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The 10th Conference on Green Chemistry and Nanotechnologies in Polymeric Materials (GCNPM 2019))
    Abstract Novel mycelium-based biocomposites (MBB) were obtained from local agricultural (hemp shives) and forestry (wood chips) by-products which were bounded together with natural growth of fungal mycelium. As a result, hemp mycocomposites (HMC) and wood mycocomposites (WMC) were manufactured. Mechanical, water absorption and biodegradation properties of MBB were investigated. MBB were characterized also by ash content and elemental composition. The results of MBB were compared with the reference materials such as the commercial MBB material manufactured by Ecovative® Design (EV), hemp magnesium oxychloride concrete (HC) and cemented wood wool panel (CW), manufactured by CEWOOD®. The mechanical properties of HMC and WMC… More >


    Synthesis of Photoactive Compounds from Tall Oil Fatty Acids

    Beatrise Sture1,*, Mikelis Kirpluks1, Sergejs Gaidukovs2, Edgars Vanags1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1077-1089, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09294
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The 10th Conference on Green Chemistry and Nanotechnologies in Polymeric Materials (GCNPM 2019))
    Abstract Photocurable systems are more effective, faster and require less energy than conventional thermal curing methods. To facilitate the ongoing transition toward a biobased economy, photoactive compounds were synthesized from tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) which is a by-product from wood pulping. In this study, photoactive monomers were synthesized by two different chemical pathways using oleic acid and TOFA as raw materials. Firstly, double bonds present in TOFA were epoxidized, followed by epoxy ring-opening with acrylic acid which introduced photoactive functional groups into the fatty acid backbone. Intermediates and final products were analysed using titration methods (acidic value, epoxy value, iodine… More >


    Mechanical Characterisation of Densified Hardwood with Regard to Structural Applications

    Katharina Müller1,*, Walter Sonderegger2, Oliver Kläusler2, Michael Klippel1, Edwin Zea Escamilla3,4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1091-1109, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09483
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-composite Materials and Structures)
    Abstract The demand for high-performance, yet eco-friendly materials is increasing on all scales from small applications in the car industry, instrument or furniture manufacturing to greater dimensions like floorings, balcony furnishings and even construction. Wood offers a good choice on all of these scales and can be modified and improved in many different ways. In this study, two common European hardwood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) were densified in radial direction by thermo-mechanical treatment and the densified product was investigated in an extensive characterisation series to determine all relevant mechanical properties. Compression in the three main… More >


    Mechanical Behavior of Light Trusses Made of Poplar Laminated Veneer Lumber and Connected with Bolts and Tooth Plates

    Yan Liu1, Yanfei Guo1, Xufeng Sun1,*, Meng Gong2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1111-1127, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09575
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-composite Materials and Structures)
    Abstract Poplar Laminated Veneer Lumber (Poplar LVL) is a new type of engineering materials with high strength, good reliability and small variability. Poplar LVL is manufactured from the fast-growing poplar, which is widely used in packaging, furniture and others, however, is rarely adopted in construction. In order to explore the feasibility of poplar LVL trusses in construction of roof, four 4.5-m-span Fink-and-Howe trusses were designed and assembled, which were made of poplar LVL with bolted- and tooth-plated connections. Vertical static loading on the upper chord joints of a truss was imposed by self-balancing test device. The mechanical properties of trusses were… More >


    Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Annona diversifolia Leaf Extract and Their Antimicrobial Application

    Rogelio Solorzano-Toala1, Daniel Gonzalez-Mendoza2,*, Benjamin Valdez-Salas3, Vianey MendezTrujillo4, Federico Gutierrez-Miceli1, Ernesto Beltran-Partida3, Olivia Tzintzun-Camacho2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1129-1137, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09845
    Abstract The aim of this study was the synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Annona diversifolia Safford. The silver nanoparticles obtained were analyzed by spectroscopic methods and dynamic light scattering methods. The inhibition of AgNPs was evaluated against Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes. The results showed that AgNPs have high values at 3 keV and particle size between 45 to 58 nm with a homogenous morphology. The AgNPs showed growth inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes. Therefore studies are needed to confirm the potential antimicrobial of different AgNP from A. diversifolia in Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. More >


    Improving Interfacial Adhesion of PLA/Lignin Composites by One-Step Solvent-Free Modification Method

    Ningning Wang1, Caili Zhang1,2,*, Wenqin Zhu3, Yunxuan Weng1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1139-1149, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.09961
    Abstract To clarify the effects of lignin as a biodegradable filler added into the PLA matrix, PLA/lignin composites with or without silane coupling agent of γ- (2,3-epoxypropoxy)propy trimethoxysilane (KH560) were prepared by a one-step solvent-free modification method. The effects of KH560 as a compatibilizer on the morphology, chemical structure, crystallization behavior, thermal degradative behavior as well as mechanical strength of the PLA/lignin composites were analyzed in detail. It was found that, after modification by KH560, the fractured surfaces of composites became smooth, suggested sufficient bonding between the lignin and PLA in the composites with KH560 coupling agent molecules. This result further… More >


    Dielectric Permittivity of Rigid Rapeseed Oil Polyol Polyurethane Biofoams and Petrochemical Foams at Low Frequencies

    Ilze Beverte1,*, Vairis Shtrauss1, Aldis Kalpinsh1, Uldis Lomanovskis1, Ugis Cabulis2, Irina Sevastyanova2, Sergejs Gaidukovs3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1151-1170, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.010215
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The 10th Conference on Green Chemistry and Nanotechnologies in Polymeric Materials (GCNPM 2019))
    Abstract Early investigations of dielectric permittivity of rigid polyurethane foams at low frequencies were made on petrochemical-origin foams, mainly by means of parallel plate capacitors. In the present investigation biopolyol was synthesized from Latvia-grown rapeseeds’ oil by the transesterification method with triethanolamine, in an environmentally friendly process, without emission of harmful substances, at temperatures 175°C ± 5°C. Rigid, closed-cell rapeseed oil polyol polyurethane biofoams and petrochemical foams were made ensuring content of the renewable rapeseed oil polyol in ready foams 27 wt.%–29 wt.%. Dielectric permittivity of the polyurethane foams and the underlying monolithic petrochemical-origin polyurethane and biopolyurethane was measured with a… More >


    Influence of the Molecular Weight on PVA/GO Composite Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    C. González-Guisasola1, O. Gil-Castell1,2, R. Teruel-Juanes1, A. Ribes-Greus1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.8, No.9, pp. 1171-1180, 2020, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2020.04399
    Abstract Composite polymer electrolyte membranes were prepared with poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Two different molecular weight (Mw), 67·103 and 130·103 g·mol−1 were selected, cross-linked with sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) and doped graphene oxide (GO). The effects on the membranes obtained from these polymers were characterized in order to evaluate the fuel cell performance. Electron microscopy showed a proper nanoparticle distribution in the polymer matrix. The chemical structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The absence of a crystalline structure and the enhancement on the thermal stability with the addition of 1% of GO was demonstrated by thermal characterization. Total transference number… More >

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