Journals / JRM / Vol.7, No.12


    Review of Microplastic Pollution in the Environment and Emerging Recycling Solutions

    Gregory Reimonn1, Taofeng Lu1, Neeti Gandhi2, Wan-Ting Chen1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1251-1268, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.08055
    Abstract Microplastic pollution represents a side-effect stemming from a global plastic waste mismanagement problem and includes degraded particles or mass produced plastic particles less than 5 mm in largest dimension. The small nature of microplastics gives this area of pollution different environmental concerns than general plastic waste in the environment. The biological toxicity of particles, their internal components, and their surface level changes all present opportunities for these particles to adversely affect the environment around them. Thus, it is necessary to review the current literature surrounding this topic and identify areas where the study of microplastic can be pushed forward. Here… More >


    Value-Added Utilization of Agro-Waste Derived Oil Palm Ash in Epoxy Composites

    Samsul Rizal1, Fizree, H. M.2, Chaturbhuj K. Saurabh3, Deepu A. Gopakumar2, N. A. Sri Aprilia4, D. Hermawan5, A. Banerjee6, Fazita M. R. M2, Haafiz M. K. M.2, Abdul Khalil H. P. S.2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1269-1278, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07227
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Developments on Biobased Materials and Composites)
    Abstract Oil palm ash (OPA) is an agro-industry waste and it has disposable problems. In the present study, an effort was made for value addition to OPA by incorporating it as a micro-filler in different concentration (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) and sizes (100, 200, and 300 mesh size particles) in the epoxy matrix. Prepared micro OPA was having a crystallinity index of 65.4%, high inorganic elements, and smooth surface morphology. Fabricated composites had higher void content as compared to neat epoxy matrix. Mechanical properties of fabricated composites had a maximum value at 30% loading of 300 mesh-size filler… More >


    Electrochemical Performance of Starch-Polyaniline Nanocomposites Synthesized By Sonochemical Process Intensification

    Narsimha Pandi1, Shirish H. Sonawane1,*, Sarang P. Gumfekar2, Anand Kishore Kola1, Pramod H. Borse3, Swapnil B. Ambade4, Sripadh Guptha1, Muthupandian Ashokkumar5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1279-1293, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07609
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Developments on Biobased Materials and Composites)
    Abstract The present study deals with the intensified synthesis of starchpolyaniline (starch-PANI) nanocomposite using an ultrasound-assisted method. Starch is a key component in this nanocomposite, which acts as a backbone of the nucleation of PANI. The Electrochemical property of the nanocomposite arises due to the addition of PANI. This is one of green approach for the synthesis of bio nanocomposite using ultrasound. The crystallinity of the composite is evaluated using the Scherrer Formula. The starch-PANI nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, Raman, XPS and TEM. The composite nanoparticles show spherical morphology. The elemental composition of starch-PANI showed O 1s peak at… More >


    Flexural Performance of CFRP-Bamboo Scrimber Composite Beams

    Xizhi Wu1,2, Xueyou Huang3, Xianjun Li1,*, Yiqiang Wu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1295-1307, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07839
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-composite Materials and Structures)
    Abstract This study presents a new structure made up of bamboo scrimber and carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) to address the low stiffness and strength of bamboo scrimbers. Three-point bending test and finite element model were conducted to study the failure mode, strain-displacement relationship, load-displacement relationship and relationships between strain distribution, contact pressure and deflection, and adhesive debonding. The results indicated that the flexural modulus and static flexural strength of the composite beams were effectively increased thanks to the CFRP sheets. The flexural modulus of the composite specimens were 2.33-2.94 times that of bamboo scrimber beams, and the flexural strength were… More >


    Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Microspheres From Waste Cotton Textiles By Hydrothermal Carbonization

    Yongfang Zhang1,2, Wensheng Hou1, Hong Guo1, Sheng Shi1, Jinming Dai1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1309-1319, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07884
    Abstract Carbon microspheres were prepared from waste cotton fibers by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) with the addition of copper sulphate in this work. The important influence factors, temperature, concentration of copper sulphate, resident time were explored here. The smooth and regular carbon microspheres could be formed at 330°C with 0.15 wt% copper sulphate after 6 h from waste cotton fibers. The crystal structures of cotton fibers were destructed in a short resident time with 0.15 wt% copper sulphate from SEM images and XRD patterns of solid products. This strategy provides a new, mild and efficient method to prepare carbon microspheres from waste… More >


    Preparation and Properties of Guiqi Polysaccharides/Chitosan/Alginate Composite Hydrogel Microspheres

    Xiaoliang Zhao1,#, Yuting Wang1,#, Xiuying Pu1, Jianzhong Ma1, Feifan Leng1, Yonggang Wang1, Yanling Wang1, Shuhong Yang1, Fen Ran2, Weijie Zhang1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1321-1332, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07757
    Abstract A series of the Guiqi polysaccharides/chitosan/alginate composite hydrogel microspheres (GPcM) with different particle sizes were prepared with Guiqi polysaccharides (GP), chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (Alg). The optimum preparation process was also determined by single factor and orthogonal experiment analysis. The GPcM were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), drug loading efficiency test (LE), encapsulation efficiency test (EE) and in vitro release study. The results showed that the Guiqi polysaccharides chitosan hydrogel (GPCH) and sodium alginate hydrogel (SAH) formed a crossover system in GPcM. The GPcM have a uniform particle size ranging from 395.1μm to… More >


    Bio-Based Hyperbranched Toughener From Tannic Acid and Its Enhanced Solvent-Free Epoxy Resin with High Performance

    Jie Xu1,3, Jiayao Yang1, Peng Lin2, Xiaohuan Liu1,*, Jinjie Zhang1, Shenyuan Fu1,*, Yuxun Tang2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1333-1346, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07905
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Polymer Materials and Their Application)
    Abstract It is essential to design economic and efficient tougheners to prepare high-performance epoxy resin; however, this has remained a huge challenge. Herein, an eco-friendly, low-cost, and facile-fabricated bio-based hyperbranched toughener, carboxylic acid-functionalized tannic acid (CATA), was successfully prepared and applicated to the preparation of solvent-free epoxy resins. The mechanical performance, morphology, structural characterization, and thermal characterization of toughened epoxy resin system were studied. The toughened epoxy resin system with only 1.0wt% CATA reached the highest impact strength, 111% higher than the neat epoxy resin system. Notably, the tensile strength and elongation at break of toughened epoxy resin systems increased moderately… More >


    Fragrant Microcapsules Based on β-Cyclodextrin for Cosmetotextile Application

    Maroua Ben Abdelkader1,2,*, Nedra Azizi1, Ayda Baffoun3, Yves Chevalier2, Mustapha Majdoub1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1347-1362, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07926
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Developments on Biobased Materials and Composites)
    Abstract Microencapsulation of neroline inside microcapsules having a polyurethane shell based on β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and hexane diisocyanate was performed by interfacial polycondensation. The polyol nature of β-CD caused tight crosslinking of microcapsules wall. Microcapsules of neroline were characterized for their chemical composition and structure of the polyurethane shell by FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, optical and electron microscopy, light scattering and electrophoresis measurements. Core content and encapsulation yield were 15% and 60%, respectively. Spherical microcapsules of mean diameter 29 μm were slightly cationic with an isoelectric point of 6.3. Neroline-loaded microcapsules were fixed on cotton fabric using an impregnation technique. The functionalized… More >


    Rapid Microwave-Assisted Ionothermal Dissolution of Cellulose and Its Regeneration Properties

    Xu Wang1,3, Jianhong Zhou1,2, Bo Pang1,2, Dawei Zhao1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1363-1380, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.08218
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Nanocellulose and Nanocellulose-Derived Functional Materials)
    Abstract Introduction of the strategy of anhydrous calcium carbonate protection incorporated with the drop by drop reaction, high-purity 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim] Cl) was prepared at reaction temperature of 80°C for only 10 h. Cellulose samples from different biomass sources (with different degree of polymerization characteristic) could be rapidly (no more than 10 minutes) and completely dissolved in the [Bmim] Cl using a microwave-assisted ionothermal route. Homogeneous cellulosic regenerates with high degree of polymerization and thermal stability characteristics were obtained through a coagulation process in water. Furthermore, the dissolved celluloses were readily regenerated into solid products such as casting films and spinning… More >


    Influence of Xyloglucan Molar Mass on Rheological Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystal/Xyloglucan Hydrogels

    Malika Talantikite1,*, Antoine Gourlay1, Sophie Le Gall1, Bernard Cathala1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1381-1390, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07838
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Developments on Biobased Materials and Composites)
    Abstract Plant components are an inexhaustible source for the construction of bio-based materials. Here we report, for the first time, the elaboration of biobased cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)/xyloglucan (XG) hydrogels. XG is a hemicellulose displaying a great affinity for cellulose surface and can be thus irreversibly adsorbed on CNC. Properties of the hydrogels were investigated by varying the molar mass of XG either by enzymatic treatment with Endoglucanase (EG2) or physical fractionation by ultrasound (US). Fractions were characterised by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and their monosacchari decompositions were determined. Three fractions with high, average and small molar mass, (800, 300 and… More >


    Tribological Behavior of Plant Oil-Based Extreme Pressure Lubricant Additive in Water-Ethylene Glycol Liquid

    Haiyang Ding1, Xiaohua Yang1, Lina Xu1, Mei Li1, Shouhai Li1, Jianling Xia1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1391-1401, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07207
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Polymer Materials and Their Application)
    Abstract A water-soluble lubricant additive (RSOPE) was prepared by esterification reaction using fatty acid from rubber seed oil. The RSOPE was added into water-ethylene glycol (W-EG) solution as lubricant additive. Dispersion stability and rheological properties were investigated. We used a four-ball tribotester to assess the lubrication performance of W-EG based fluid with the RSOPE additive. The stainless-steel surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Good dispersion stability was observed in the RSOPE/W-EG solutions. Furthermore, nonNewtonian fluid behavior at low shear rates and Newtonian fluid behavior at high shear rates was exhibited. The addition of RSOPE… More >


    Synthesis of Poly(acrylic acid)-Grafted Carboxymethyl Cellulose for Efficient Removal of Copper Ions

    Ying Lin1, Yihua Cao1, Qingping Song1, Jiangang Gao1, Puyou Jia2,*, Hamed Alsulami3, Marwan Amin Kutbi3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.12, pp. 1403-1414, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.08380
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Polymer Materials and Their Application)
    Abstract Biocompatible and high content grafted carboxymethyl cellulose-gpoly(acrylic acid) powder was successfully synthesized in an aqueous system, and used as adsorbents for the removal of Cu(II) in aqueous solution. The copolymer was characterized by FT-IR and SEM techniques. Graft copolymerization introduced a large number of carboxyl groups in the polymer and caused the micro-surface of the material to be porous. The fundamental adsorption behaviors of the material were studied. The adsorption kinetics was well fitted with pseudo-second order equation, while the adsorption isotherm preferred to be described the Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the Langmuir model was 154.32… More >

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