Journals / JRM / Vol.7, No.10


  • REVIEW

    Development of CaO From Natural Calcite as a Heterogeneous Base Catalyst in the Formation of Biodiesel: Review

    Nuni Widiarti1, Yatim Lailun Ni’mah1, Hasliza Bahruji2, Didik Prasetyoko1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 915-939, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07183
    Abstract Biodiesel is a fossil fuel that is in demand to be developed because it is bio-renewable, biodegradable and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel produced from the transesterification reaction of vege Tab. oil using a base catalyst. CaO is the most developed catalyst for the reaction of transesterification of oil into biodiesel because it is cheap, the process is easy and has a high level of alkalinity. CaO is a cheap catalyst because it is easily obtained from natural ingredients. The use of CaO catalysts in the reaction formation of biodiesel continues to develop through modification with various porous materials and different oxide… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Cross-Laminated Timber with Different Lay-ups Using Japanese Larch

    Yingchun Gong1,#,*, Fenglu Liu2,#, Zhaopeng Tian1, Guofang Wu1, Haiqing Ren1, Cheng Guan2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 941-956, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07354
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-composite Materials and Structures)
    Abstract Japanese larch is one of the main plantation tree species in China. A lack of engineered wood products made by Japanese larch , limits its application in wood structures. In this study, based on optimum process para meters, such as pressure (1.2 MPa), adhesive spread rate (200 g/m 2 ) and adhesive (one component polyurethane), the mechanical properties of Japanese larch made cross laminated timber ( with different lay ups were evaluated by means of the static method . Results of this study show ed that variations in lay ups significant ly affected the mechanical properties of CLT. The strength… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Evaluation of the Out-of-Plane Shear Properties of Cross-Laminated Timber

    Yin Yang1, Xiaoyan Cao1, Zhiqiang Wang1,*, Zhijun Liang1, Jianhui Zhou2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 957-965, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07558
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-composite Materials and Structures)
    Abstract The out-of-plane shear properties of cross-laminated timber (CLT) substantially influence the overall mechanical properties of CLT. Various testing methods and theories related to these properties have recently been developed. The effects of the number of layers (three and five layers) and testing method (short-span three- and four-point bending tests) on the out-of-plane shear properties of CLT were evaluated. The out-of-plane shear strength values were calculated based on different theories for comparison. The failure mode in the short-span four-point bending (FPB) method was mainly the rolling shear (RS) failure in the cross layers, indicating that the FPB method was appropriate to… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Integrated Kenaf/Unsaturated Polyester BioComposite

    Mohammed Mohammed1, Bashir O. Betar2, Rozyanty Rahman1, Aeshah M. Mohammed3, Azlin F. Osman1, Muhammed Jaafar4, Tijjani Adam5,*, Omar S. Dahham5, Uda Hashim6, Nik Z. Noriman5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 967-982, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07562
    Abstract Increasing need for materials with special features have brought various new inventions, one of the most promising hope for new material with special features and functionalities is composites materials. Thus, this study report an integration of zinc nanoparticles into kenaf/polyester polymer composite to introduce new behavior to the composite. The composite behaviors were compared for mechanical, thermal, moisture absorption and biodegradability properties. Prepared Zinc Oxide nanoparticles entrenched in the kenaf/polyestaer composites net structure through chemical bonds between kenaf/ZnO/polyester resin, existence of ZnO significantly influence the mechanical and thermals properties of composites. Thermal analysis based on (TGA) response revealed the integration… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Alginate Composite Hydrogel Bead with Multilayer Flake Structure for Dye Adsorptions

    Xiaoyu Chen*, Jie Zhu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 983-996, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07325
    Abstract With the rapid development of textile industry, a large amount of dye-contaminated effluents was produced and caused serious environmental problem. To remove the dye from effluents, adsorption materials have been applied because of their relatively cheap, high efficiency, and easy handling. In this study, a novel composite hydrogel bead with unique multilayer flake structure was fabricated by alginate, acrylamide and attapulgite for dye adsorption. Acrylamide was grafted polymerization onto alginate to obtain alginate-g-poly(acrylamide). Then alginate-g-poly(acrylamide) was cross-linked by Ca2+ ions in present of attapulgite to form composite hydrogel bead. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results show that the freeze dried composite… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Decision Support Strategy in Selecting Natural Fiber Materials for Automotive Side-Door Impact Beam Composites

    M. A. Shaharuzaman1,2,4, S. M. Sapuan1,3,*, M. R. Mansor2,4, M. Y. M. Zuhri1,3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 997-1010, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07529
    Abstract The enforcement on sustainable design and environmental-friendly products has attracted the interest of researchers and engineers in the context of replacing metals and synthetic fibers with natural based fibers, especially in the automotive industry. However, studies on sustainable natural fiber material selection in the automotive industry are limited. Evaluation for the side-door impact beam was conducted by gathering product design specification from literature which amounted to seven criteria and it was forwarded to ten decision makers with automotive engineering and product design background for evaluation. The weightage required for decision-making was obtained using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method based… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Study on Toughening Phenolic Foams in Phosphorus-Containing Tung Oil-Based Derivatives

    Fei Song1, Puyou Jia1,*, Yanan Xiao2, Caiying Bo1, Lihong Hu1, Yonghong Zhou1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 1011-1021, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.08044
    Abstract Phenolic foams (PFs) as thermal insulation material with outstanding flame retardancy are required to match society’s ever expanding safety expectations; however, a trade off exists between flame retardancy and toughness. Here, for the first time, we synthesized a novel reactive phosphorus containing tung oil based derivative and used it to toughen PF, resulting in PFs with a combination of excellent mechanical properties and flame retardancy. Compared with pure PF, the modified PFs exhibit enhanced mechanical properties, with specific compressive and flexural strengths as high as 5.67 MPa and 12.46 MPa, which represent increases of 90.67% and 178.7% over those of… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Biocompatible Blends Based on Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) and Solid Organic Waste

    Antonio Greco*, Francesca Ferrari, Raffaella Striani, Carola Esposito Corcione
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 1023-1035, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07778
    Abstract This work is aimed at the development of new green composite materials through the incorporation of the solid organic waste (SOW) in a thermoplastic matrix. After being ground, the organic waste was exposed to a sterilization process, though an autoclave cycle, in order to obtain a complete removal of the bacterial activity. The SOW was found to have a high amount of water, about 65-70%, which made uneconomical its further treatment to reduce the water amount. Therefore, a water soluble polymer, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was chosen in order to produce SOW based blends. However, in order to reduce the… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Characterization of DOPO-g-CNSL and Its Effect on the Properties of Phenolic Foams

    Yufeng Ma1, Xuanang Gong1, Bing Xie1, Xiang Geng1, Puyou Jia2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 1037-1046, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.07454
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Polymer Materials and Their Application)
    Abstract In order to improve the mechanical properties without reducing its flame retardancy of phenolic foams (PFs), 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) was introduced in the structure of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) to improve its flame retardant, and the product of DOPO grafting CNSL (DOPO-g-CNSL) was obtained to modify phenolic resin, and to prepare DOPO-g-CNSL modified PFs (DCMPFs). The structures of DOPO-g-CNSL were verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Compared with CNSL, thermal stability of DOPO-g-CNSL was decreased and Ti decreased by 3.53%, but the residual carbon (800°C) was increased by 35.05%. Compared with pure PF,… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Composites Reinforced with Macadamia Nutshell Fibers

    Joyce de P. Cipriano2, N. C. Zanini1, I. R. Dantas1, D. R. Mulinari1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.7, No.10, pp. 1047-1053, 2019, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2019.00001
    Abstract The use of natural fibers as an additive in polymeric matrices has attracted interest of the automotive industries, for its low cost, mechanical properties, biodegradability and lightness. However, the hydrophilic nature of the fiber makes polymer compatibility difficult. Fiber surface treatments can be used to enhance the fiber/matrix interface. In the present work, polypropylene (PP) composites reinforced with fibers from macadamia nutshell were obtained and characterized. Macadamia nutshell fibers were treated by an alkaline treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH 4%) to improve adhesion between fibers and matrix. Fibers were characterized by techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction… More >

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