Journals / JRM / Vol.6, No.6


  • ARTICLE

    Novel Bio-based Flame Retardant Systems Derived from Tannic Acid

    Fouad LAOUTID1,*, Valeriia KARASEVA1, Lucie COSTES1, 2, Sylvain BROHEZ2, Rosica MINCHEVA1, Philippe DUBOIS1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 559-572, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00004
    Abstract In this study, tannic acid (TA) was investigated as flame retardant agent for PLA. Different strategies to modify its thermal degradation pathway have been explored in order to improve its charring effect. The first one consists in combining TA with organomodified montmorillonite (oMMT), and enables limiting the thermo-oxidative degradation of TA and promoting the formation of an effective char layer. Flame-retardant (FR) behavior of PLA-based composition has been found to be positively impacted by this combination since a reduction of the peak of Heat Release Rate (PHRR), more important than the value recorded when oMMT and tannic acid are used… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Reactive Compatibilization of Short-Fiber Reinforced Poly(lactic acid) Biocomposites

    Phornwalan Nanthananon1, Manus Seadan2, Sommai Pivsa-Art3, Hiroyuki Hamada4, Supakij Suttiruengwong1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 573-583, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00129
    Abstract Poor interfacial adhesion between biobased thermoplastics and natural fibers is recognized as a major drawback for biocomposites. To be applicable for the large-scale production, a simple method to handle is of importance. This work presented poly(lactic acid) (PLA) reinforced with short-fiber and three reactive agents including anhydride and epoxide groups were selected as compatibilizers. Biocomposites were prepared by one-step melt-mixing methods. The influence of reactive agents on mechanical, dynamic mechanical properties and morphology of PLA biocomposites were investigated. Tensile strength and storage modulus of PLA biocomposites incorporated with epoxide-based reactive agent was increased 13.9% and 37.4% compared to non-compatibilized PLA… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Polyisocyanuratoesters: Renewable Linear Polyesters with High Flame Retardancy

    Zijian Chen1, Rui Hou, Jianbing Cheng, Fengjie Fang, Donglin Tang*, Guangzhao Zhang
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 584-590, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00120
    Abstract Biobased urea nowadays attracts increasing attention as a biomass resource with giant potential, which benefits from the development of biobased ammonia and ecological sanitation system. Urea is an ideal feedstock for chemical industry and developing new urea-based pol ymer materials can take advantage of the urea resource. In this work, a class of renewable linear polyesters, nam ely polyisocyanuratoesters (PICEs) were synthesized from a urea-based monomer bis(2-carbomethoxyethyl) isocyanurate and biobased aliphatic diols. Compared with conventional aliphatic polyesters, PICEs containing isocyanurate rings in the polymer chain backbone exhibit outstanding flame retardancy that both PICE-4 (the number ‘4’ refers to the number… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Poly(w-pentadecalactone-co-e-caprolactone) Copolymers

    Cansu Ulker*, Yuksel Guvenilir
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 591-598, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634189
    Abstract As an alternative biodegradable aliphatic polyester, poly(w-pentadecalactone-co-ε-caprolactone) copolymer was synthesized via enzymatic ring-opening polymerization. A new biocatalyst, Candida antarctica lipase B, immobilized onto rice husk ash was used for catalysis. Reactions were carried out at various temperatures and periods for varied copolymer compositions in order to obtain the highest molecular weight copolymer. The best reaction parameters were found to be 80 °C and 6 hours and molecular weights increased proportionally with the amount of w-pentadecalactone (w-PDL). The molecular structure of copolymer with 75% weight ratio of w-PDL (Mn = 19720 g/mol) was characterized by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Reinforcement of Thermoplastic Starch Films with Cellulose Fibres Obtained from Rice and Coffee Husks

    Sofía Collazo-Bigliardi1,*, Rodrigo Ortega-Toro2, Amparo Chiralt Boix1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 599-610, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00127
    Abstract Cellulosic fibres from coffee (CF) and rice (RF) husks have been obtained applying chemical treatments and characterized as to their microstructure and thermal behaviour. These materials have been incorporated into glycerol plasticised thermoplastic starch (TPS) films obtained by melt blending and compression moulding at 1 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt%. Microstructure, thermal behaviour and optical, tensile and barrier properties of the composites were analysed. Both kinds of micro-fibres improve the film stiffness while reduced the film stretchability. However, CF better maintained the film ductility at 1 and 5 wt%. A network of fine oriented fibres was observed on the… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Enzymatic Degradation of Poly(butylenesuccinate)/ Thermoplastic Starch Blend

    Anna Kundys1,*, Justyna Ostrowska2, Urszula Chojnacka1, Zuzanna Grodzka1, Aleksandra Lange1, Magdalena Paluch2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 611-618, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00134
    Abstract The degradation of thermoplastic starch blend in the presence of commercial α-amylase and unpurified amylase of microbial origin was investigated. The blends consisting of thermoplastic starch and poly(butylene succinate) have potential use in packaging applications thus, it is essential to establish susceptibility to degradation. Molar mass loss, gravimetric weight loss, and molecular structure were evaluated. The changes in the surface were observed with scanning electron microscopy. It was confirmed that there was a significant difference in gravimetric weight loss between the blends degraded in two different solutions. Unpurified enzymes of microbial origin, produced by Rhizopus oryzae cultures decomposed analyzed materials… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Enzymatic Synthesis of Polycaprolactone: Effect of Immobilization Mechanism of CALB on Polycaprolactone Synthesis

    Yasemin Kaptan, M.Sc.1,*, Yüksel Avcıbaşı-Güvenilir1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 619-629, 2018, DOI:10.32604/JRM.2018.00142
    Abstract Surface-modified rice husk ash was used as an inorganic support material for immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B. (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane was used for surface modification. Immobilization of CALB was performed via both physical adsorption and cross-linking. PCL synthesis was carried out by using these immobilized enzymes, free enzyme and Novozyme 435®. Molecular weight distribution of polymer samples was obtained by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and chain structures of the polymer samples were observed by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The highest monomer conversion is generally obtained by using cross-linked enzyme, around 90%. PDI values for all polymer samples were approximately… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Biobased Aromatic-Aliphatic Polyols by Thiol-Ene Reactions of Propoxylated Mercaptanized Cardanol

    Maha L. Shrestha1,2,*, Mihail Ionescu1, Xianmei Wan1, Thomas Upshaw3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 630-641, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2018.634106
    Abstract Aromatic-aliphatic polyols were obtained previously from the thiol-ene reactions of propoxylated cardanol with hydroxyalkyl mercaptans; these aromatic-aliphatic polyols were then utilized in the preparation of rigid polyurethane foams with excellent properties. The current work describes a variant of cardanol polyol synthesis by thiol-ene reactions in three steps. The first step is propoxylation of cardanol by reacting cardanol with propylene oxide; the second step is mercaptanization of propoxylated cardanol by reacting double bonds with hydrogen sulfide; and the third step involves the addition of the thiol groups of mercaptanized propoxylated cardanol to the double bonds of allyl alcohol, glycerol-1-allyl ether, and… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Chemical Modification of Cassava Starch by Transesterification Using Vegetable Oil/Aluminum Chloride

    A.G. Gouater Issola1, A. Ngueteu Kamlo2, A.M. Cheumani Yona1,*, M. Kor Ndikontar1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 642-650, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2018.634108
    Abstract Chemical modification of cassava starch by transesterification of a vegetable oil (palm kernel oil) using aluminum chloride as a Lewis acid catalyst was achieved under relatively mild conditions (temperature 60–110 °C; atmospheric pressure). The reaction was carried out without any additional solvent. The modified starch was characterized by degree of substitution (DS), FTIR, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. DS of 0.09 to 0.53 were obtained. The cassava starch presented an X-ray diffraction pattern of a type A starch. X-ray analyses showed that the reaction did not significantly affect the crystallinity of starch. The modified starch films (MStF) adsorbed less water… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Preparation and Characterization of Alkyd Resins Based on Citrullus colocynthis Seed Oil

    Hassen Mohamed Sbihi1,*, Hamid Shaikh2, Lahssen El Blidi2, Imed Arbi Nehdi1, Ubair Abdus Samad2, Moufida Romdhani-Younes3, Saud Ibrahim Al-Resayes1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 651-661, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2018.634105
    Abstract In this study, different samples of alkyd resins based on Citrullus colocynthis seed oil (CCSO)—which has a high content of linoleic acid—were prepared as a renewable raw material. Short (I), medium (II), and long (III) alkyd resins were synthesized using oil, glycerol, and phthalic anhydride (PA) in different proportions. Prunus mahaleb seed oil (PMSO), which contains conjugated linolenic acid, was blended with CCSO in different proportions to examine the effect of PMSO on the film properties of alkyd resins (IV and V). All synthesized resins were characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis. These resins were also cured by… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Effects of Processing Parameters on Mechanical Properties and Structure of Banana Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Dan-Thuy Van-Pham1,*, Minh Tri Nguyen1, Chanh-Nghiem Nguyen2, Thi Truc Duyen Le1, Thi Yen Nhu Pham1, Khai Thinh Nguyen2, Yukihiro Nishikawa3, Qui Tran-Cong-Miyata3 Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.6, pp. 662-670, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2018.634107
    Abstract The mechanical properties of unidirectional natural fiber-reinforced composites are generally affected by several processing parameters during compression molding. This study investigates the effects of processing temperature, time, and pressure on the tensile and flexural properties of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene reinforced by banana fibers. X-ray CT imaging was employed to find the relationship between the mechanical properties and structure of the processed composite. Besides, the water absorption of composites was observed and the way in which the mechanical properties evolved after water absorption was analyzed. The tensile and flexural properties of the unidirectional banana fiber-reinforced composite were found to be inversely… More >

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