Journals / JRM / Vol.6, No.1


    Review of Cellulose Smart Material: Biomass Conversion Process and Progress on Cellulose-Based Electroactive Paper

    S.H. Hassan1,2, Lee Hwei Voon1*, T.S. Velayutham2*, Lindong Zhai3, Hyun Chan Kim3, Jaehwan Kim3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 1-25, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634173
    Abstract Cellulose is a renewable biomass material and natural polymer which is abundantly available on Earth, and includes agricultural wastes, forestry residues, and woody materials. The excellent and smart characteristics of cellulose materials, such as lightweight, biocompatibility, biodegradability, high mechanical strength/stiffness and low thermal expansibility, have made cellulose a high-potential material for various industry applications. Cellulose has recently been discovered as a smart material in the electroactive polymers family which carries the name of cellulose-based electroactive paper (EAPap). The shear piezoelectricity in cellulose polymers is able to induce large displacement output, low actuation voltage, and low power consumption in the application… More >


    Poly(lactic acid)-starch/Expandable Graphite (PLA-starch/EG) Flame Retardant Composites

    Mfiso Emmanuel Mngomezulu1, Adriaan Stephanus Luyt2, Steve Anthony Chapple3, Maya Jacob John3,4*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 26-37, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634140
    Abstract This work reports on the effect of commercial expandable graphite (EG) on the flammability and thermal decomposition properties of PLA-starch blend. The PLA-starch/EG composites were prepared by melt-mixing and their thermal stability, volatile pyrolysis products and flammability characteristics were investigated. The char residues of the composites, after combustion in a cone calorimeter, were analyzed with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The thermal decomposition stability of the composites improved in the presence of EG. However, the char content was less than expected as per the combination of the wt% EG added into PLA-starch and the % residue of PLA-starch. The flammability… More >


    Effect of Hybridization on the Mechanical Properties of Pineapple Leaf Fiber/Kenaf Phenolic Hybrid Composites

    M. Asim1, M. Jawaid1,4*, K. Abdan2, M.R. Ishak3, O.Y. Alothman4,5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 38-46, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634148
    Abstract In this study, pineapple leaf fiber (PALF), kenaf fiber (KF) and PALF/KF/phenolic (PF) composites were fabricated and their mechanical properties were investigated. The mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact) of the PALF/KF/PF hybrid composites were investigated and compared with PALF/KF composites. The 3P7K exhibited enhanced tensile strength (46.96 MPa) and modulus (6.84 GPa), flexural strength (84.21 MPa) and modulus (5.81 GPa), and impact strength (5.39 kJ/m2) when compared with the PALF/PF and KF/PF composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the fracture surfaces of the tensile testing samples. The microstructure of the 7P3K hybrid composite showed good interfacial… More >


    Potentials of an Eco-Friendly Composite in Hot-Dry Climate

    Fati Zoma1*, David Y.K. Toguyeni1, Ousmane Coulibaly1, Ivon Hassel2, Abdoulaye Ouedraogo3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 47-54, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634147
    Abstract This study aims to show the aptitude of a locally made composite for providing thermal comfort and mechanical resistance in buildings in hot-dry climates. The thermal characterization reveals that the thermal diffusivity of the studied material is lower than that of commonly used materials such as agglomerated and full cinderblocks and laterite blocks and therefore is a better insulating material. In addition, its thermal inertia is the highest compared to commonly used materials of agglomerated and full cinderblocks, laterite blocks and compressed earth blocks, which implies a longer time lag. On the basis of mechanical resistance, with a compression resistance… More >


    Application of Prunus amygdalus By-products in Eco-friendly Dyeing of Textile Fabrics

    Ibtissem Moussa1, Noureddine Baaka1, Ramzi Khiari1,2,3*, Ali Moussa4, Gérard Mortha3, Mohamed Farouk Mhenni1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 55-67, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634141
    Abstract Natural dyes have become an interesting subject of study because of their better ecological properties in comparison to their synthetic counterparts. This article concerns the dyeing of wool, silk, and polyamide fabrics with natural dyes extracted from almond shells and stems. The developed method of dyeing by these extracts is interesting and very attractive for several reasons: firstly, the extracts used are the black liquor discharged from the industries of delignification, which is a chemical process for removing lignin from agricultural wastes to produce a cellulosic fiber; (ii) these natural dyes are renewable and available in large quantities; (iii) this… More >


    Lightweight Biobased Polyurethane Nanocomposite Foams Reinforced with Pineapple Leaf Nanofibers (PLNFs)

    Xiaojian Zhou1,2, Hui Wang1, Jun Zhang2, Zhifeng Zheng1, Guanben Du1,2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 68-74, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634150
    Abstract Pineapple leaf nanofibers (PLNFs) extracted from pineapple leaf fiber were used for reinforcing biobased polyurethane foam (BPU). The dispersion performance of PLNF in the foaming mixture system, nanocomposite foaming behavior, cell morphology, cell size, density, compressive strength and dimensional stability were investigated. The viscosity of the mixtures increased with increasing the PLNF content. The addition of a tiny amount of PLNF did not influence the exothermic temperature of the foam system, but reduced the expansion and gel time of the nanocomposite foams. This reduced time was found to increase the production efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the… More >


    The Role of Bamboo Nanoparticles in Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites

    Enih Rosamah1, Abdul Khalil H.P.S.2*, S.W. Yap2, Chaturbhuj K. Saurabh2, Paridah M. Tahir3, Rudi Dungani4, Abdulwahab F. Owolabi2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 75-86, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634152
    Abstract In this study, bamboo nanoparticles in concentration ranges from 0–5% were incorporated along with woven/nonwoven kenaf fiber mat into unsaturated polyester and the developed composites were further characterized. Bamboo chips were subjected to ball milling process for the synthesis of nanoparticles with a particle size of 52.92 nm. The effect that the incorporation of nanoparticles had on various properties of reinforced composites was further observed. Due to the high surface area of nanoparticles, incorporation of 3% of nanofillers contributed towards strong bonding and better wettability with matrix, thus resulting in excellent mechanical properties and thermal characteristics in reinforced unsaturated polyester… More >


    Biobased Aromatic-Aliphatic Polyols from Cardanol by Thermal Thiol-Ene Reaction

    Maha L. Shrestha1, Mihail Ionescu1*, Xianmei Wan1, Nikola Bilić1, Zoran S. Petrović1, Tom Upshaw2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 87-101, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634153
    Abstract Cardanol is a natural phenol which is obtained from high vacuum distillation of cashew nut shell liquid. It contains a hydrocarbon chain of 15 carbon atoms in the meta position, either with one, two or three non-conjugated double bonds. This article describes thermal thiol-ene reaction to synthesize new cardanol-based polyols for polyurethanes with aromatic-aliphatic structure. Phenolic hydroxyl group was blocked by alkoxylation and 2-mercaptoethanol was added to the double bonds of propoxylated cardanol. The resultant product is a mixture of polyols that may contain one, two, three or four hydroxyl groups, as a function of the number of double bonds… More >


    Selective Adsorption of Ag(I) from Electronic Waste Leachate Using Modified Silk Sericin

    Sijing Zhang1*, Fengjiao Ao1, Yongping Wang2, Junxue Zhao3, Yongliang Ji1, Shuangli Chen1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 102-116, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634154
    Abstract A novel biosorbent was synthesized by grafting bisthiourea (BTU) on a silk sericin (SS) matrix. This biosorbent was denoted as BTU-SS and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential measurements, elemental analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As revealed by the adsorption experiments, both BTU-SS and SS showed low affinity towards coexisting base metallic ions in Ag(I)-Cu(II)-Zn(II)-Ni(II)-Pb(II) electronic waste leachate mixtures, while their adsorption capacities towards Ag(I) reached 30.5 and 10.4 mg·g–1 at a pH of 5.0, respectively. BTU-SS showed higher selectivity towards Ag(I) than SS, as revealed by the Ag(I) partition coefficients between the biosorbents and the… More >


    Shear Strength and Morphological Study of Polyurethane-OMMT Clay Nanocomposite Adhesive Derived from Vegetable Oil-Based Constituents

    Swarnalata Sahoo1,2*, Hemjyoti Kalita1, Smita Mohanty1,2, Sanjay Kumar Nayak1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 117-125, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634155
    Abstract In the current work, we have synthesized vegetable oil-based polyurethane-OMMT clay nanocomposite (PUNC) adhesive with the incorporation of different wt% of organically modified nanoclay (1 to 5 wt%) into the biobased polyurethane (PU) matrix through in-situ polymerization process via ultrasonication method. At the initial stage, PU adhesive was prepared using polyol and partially biobased aliphatic isocyanate, wherein polyol was derived from the transesterified castor oil using ethylene glycol. The formation of PU and PUNC adhesive was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. The tensile strength of PU with different wt% of nanoclay was determined and the analysis showed… More >


    Biobased Vanillic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid: Building Blocks for Fully Renewable Copolyesters

    Claudio Gioia*, Maria Barbara Banella, Grazia Totaro, Micaela Vannini, Paola Marchese, Martino Colonna, Laura Sisti, Annamaria Celli
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 126-135, 2018, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634191
    Abstract New fully biobased polyether/esters have been synthesized by a one-pot polymerization reaction of ricinoleic acid (RA), vanillic acid (VA) and ethylene carbonate (EC). In particular, EC selectively reacts with the phenolic group of VA to obtain in-situ 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxybenzoate (EV), suitable for subsequent copolymerization with RA. The procedure was carried out in a single step, without any solvent. Chemical structure and thermal properties of the new materials were studied in order to explore relationships between composition and final performances. The combination of EV, bearing a rigid aromatic structure, with RA, characterized by high flexibility and potential biocidal activity, allows the production… More >

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