Journals / JRM / Vol.5, No.3-4


  • EDITORIAL

    Editorial

    Yendry Corrales, Bernal Sibaja, Rodolfo González, José Vega-Baudrit
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 165-165, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634149
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • ARTICLE

    Valorization of Citrus Waste: Use in Catalysis for the Oxidation of Sulfides

    María Belén Colombo Migliorero, Valeria Palermo*, Patricia Graciela Vázquez, Gustavo Pablo Romanelli
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 167-173, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634108
    Abstract The utilization and valorization of industrial waste is an effective strategy for environmental protection. Since the juice industry generates a huge amount of citrus waste, we studied the application of thermally treated orange peel in catalysis. On the other hand, Keggin heteropolyacids are excellent oxidant catalysts used as a replacement for conventional oxidants; however, their solubility in polar solvents and the low specific area limit their use as heterogeneous catalysts. The utilization of treated orange peel as heteropolyacid support for the selective oxidation of sulfides is presented here. Firstly, orange peel was thermally treated, and then it was incorporated with… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Beetosan-Based Hydrogels Modified with Natural Substances

    Bożena Tyliszczak1, Anna Drabczyk2*, Sonia Kudłacik2, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 174-179, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634107
    Abstract In this study a series of hydrogels based on Beetosan® and containing natural substances, such as bee pollen and sage (Salvia officinalis), have been prepared. Beetosan is a type of chitosan that is obtained from the external skeletons of naturally occurring dead honeybees. In multistage chemical treatment, dead insect waste is converted into chitosan that is used in research as a hydrogel matrix. Prepared materials were synthesized using photopolymerization. Studies on the obtained hydrogels included determining their swelling ability and behavior in a simulated body fluid environment, as well as determining their chemical structure by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Studies on Bone-Derived Calcium Phosphate Materials

    Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec1, Klaudia Pluta1, Dagmara Malina1*, Bożena Tyliszczak2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 180-188, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634106
    Abstract In recent years, the development of composite biomaterials has been the subject of very intensive research. The elaboration of technology for manufacturing new biomaterials will allow their practical implementation and adaptation to changing market needs. One of the key components in the developed composite materials will be natural origin hydroxyapatite (HAp) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) obtained from bone products. In this study, preparation and detailed characterization of bone-derived calcium phosphates as a component of biomaterial composites is proposed. This novel method of obtaining hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications allows the obtainment of a material with expected parameters. In this study, pork… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Production of Starch Films Using Propolis Nanoparticles as Novel Bioplasticizer

    Karolina Villalobos1, Hider Rojas1, Rodolfo González-Paz2, Daniel Brenes Granados2, Jeimmy González-Masís2, José Vega Baudrit1,3, Yendry Regina Corrales-Ureña1*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 189-198, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634109
    Abstract Because starch is a biodegradable polymer with low cost and wide availability it is an attractive material for producing edible films for fruits. Films produced with pure starch have the disadvantage of being fragile. To overcome this issue, propolis nanoparticles were used as a novel plasticizer. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the films containing 0.5, 1 and 3 wt.% propolis nanoparticles were evaluated. The best performance was obtained using 0.5 wt.% propolis, increasing the Young’s modulus and decreasing the glass transition temperature (Tg), showing their plasticizing effect. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Nanobiodiversity: The Potential of Extracellular Nanostructures

    Felipe Orozco1‡, Brian Alfaro-González1‡, Yendry Corrales Ureña1, Karolina Villalobos1, Angie Sanchez1, Francisco Bravo1, José Roberto Vega1, Orlando Argüello-Miranda1†*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 199-207, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634110
    Abstract As an outcome of millions of years of evolution, biological systems have developed different methods to interact with their surroundings. Many of these adaptations, such as secretions, light-interacting surfaces, biochemical active compounds, and many other survival strategies, are phenomena occurring at the nanometric scale. In this review, we describe how extracellular nanometric structures are responsible for manipulating energy and matter, creating some of the emergent properties of life. Iridescent colors in birds’ feathers, the manipulation of wettability of insects’ exoskeletons, the adhesive properties of nanopatterned secretions and the ability to polarize light are examples of the potential of extracellular nanostructures.… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Durability of Thermally Modified Wood of Gmelina arborea and Tectona grandis Tested under Field and Accelerated Conditions

    Róger Moya*, Lucia Fallas-Valverde, Alexander Berrocal, Dawa Méndez-Álvarez
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 208-219, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634111
    Abstract This study evaluated the durability in terms of decay and mechanical resistance of thermally modified (TM) wood of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea treated at 160, 180, 200 and 220 °C. The TM wood of both species treated above 200 °C and 180 °C respectively presents lower weight loss (WL) after 300 days exposure in field and accelerated testing. It was also found that in field testing over 180 °C, the module of elasticity (MOE) and module of rupture (MOR) of the exposed and unexposed stakes of TM wood were not affected. Accelerated tests showed that the loss in flexural… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Thermal-Mechanical Characterization of Polyurethane Rigid Foams: Effect of Modifying Bio-Polyol Content in Isocyanate Prepolymers

    Luis Daniel Mora-Murillo1, Felipe Orozco-Gutierrez2, José Vega-Baudrit2, Rodolfo Jesús González-Paz2*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 220-230, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634112
    Abstract Nowadays, green polyurethane (PU) foams are mostly synthesized by replacing an amount of petrochemical polyol with biobased polyol. Here we report five different families of isocyanate prepolymer formulations that were prepared with biobased sources and the correlation between the structure of chains and the properties of the produced PU foam. Foam behavior in tension, torsion, compression, shape memory tests and physical properties were studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA); interactions in the polymer chains were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); and thermal analysis was performed by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Characterization of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) from Acrylated Soybean Oil and a-Resorcylic Acid: Part 1. Kinetics of Network Formation

    Bernal Sibaja1,2,3, Camila Pereira Matheus1,2, Ricardo Ballestero Mendez1,2, J. R. Vega-Baudrit3, Maria L. Auad*,1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 231-240, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634113
    Abstract Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) using an epoxy phase synthesized from chemically modified α-resorcylic acid, and an acrylate phase employing acrylated soybean oil are the main focus of this study. Part 1 details the epoxidation of α-resorcylic acid with epichlorohydrin in alkaline medium, as well as the study of the polymerization and network formation of the generated epoxy-acrylate interpenetrated systems. The epoxy content of the epoxidized α-resorcylic acid was measured by means of a titration using HBr in acetic acid solution, and the functionalization was studied by FTIR. From the obtained results, mainly calorimetry and gel time determination, it was clear… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Characterization of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) from Acrylated Soybean Oil a-Resorcylic Acid: Part 2. Thermo-Mechanical Properties and Linear Fracture Mechanics

    Bernal Sibaja1,2,3, Camila Pereira Matheus1,2, Ricardo Ballestero Mendez1,2,Ramsis Farag1,2,4, J. R. Vega-Baudrit3, Maria L. Auad*,1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 241-250, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634114
    Abstract The thermo-mechanical properties and linear fracture mechanics of acrylated soybean oil and the triglycidylated ether of α-resorcylic acid interpenetrated networks as a function of their weight composition are the focus of Part 2 of this article. Thermo-mechanical characterization showed that the obtained materials behave as thermoset amorphous polymers, and that both the modulus and glass transition are extremely dependent on the epoxy/acrylate weight ratio. Modulus values ranged from 0.7 to 3.3 GPa at 30 °C, and glass transition temperatures ranged from around 58 °C to approx. 130 °C. No synergistic effect on these two properties was observed. Interpenetrating networks containing… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Design and Characterization of Biocomposites from Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and Buriti Petiole (Mauritia flexuosa)

    Samantha Andrade Vale de Sousa1, Mercês Coelho da Silva2, Orlando Gama da Silva Júnior3, Artur Caron Mottin4, Rodrigo Lambert Oréfice3, Eliane Ayres1*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 251-257, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634115
    Abstract Buriti or miriti (Mauritia flexuosa) is a palm tree found in the Brazilian cerrado. Herein buriti petiole, part of the trunk that supports the leaves, was ground and used without any treatment as low density load to prepare poly(lactic acid) biocomposites. X-ray microtomography of buriti petiole showed its porous structure, with a wide pore size distribution determined with the aid of SEM. The obtained biocomposites with 1, 5 and 10 wt% of buriti petiole particles were investigated by their sessile drop contact angle, FTIR, TGA and tensile test. The tensile properties indicated poor adhesion between phases, which is crucial to… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Rapeseed Oil as Feedstock for High Functionality Polyol Synthesis

    M. Kirpluks1*, D. Kalnbunde1, Z. Walterova2, U. Cabulis1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 258-270, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634116
    Abstract In this study, polyols with high average functionality were synthesized from a renewable resource, rapeseed oil, as raw material for rigid PU foam production. A well-known method of rapeseed oil fatty acid double bond epoxidation was used to introduce oxirane rings into rapeseed oil structure. The temperature influence on epoxidation reaction conversion rate was studied by volumetric and FTIR spectra analysis. After epoxidation of rapeseed oil, an oxirane ring-opening reaction was carried out to obtain high functionality polyols. Diethylene glycol, a conventional oxirane ring-opening reagent, was compared to amine-based polyfunctional alcohols, diethanolamine and triethanolamine. The introduction of tertiary amine groups… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Variation of Physical Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foams Synthesized from Renewable Sources with Different Commercial Catalysts

    Daniel Brenes-Granados1, Jorge M. Cubero-Sesin1,2, Felipe Orozco Gutiérrez3, Jose Vega-Baudrit3, Rodolfo Gonzalez-Paz3*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 280-289, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634118
    Abstract In this work, rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized from renewable sources using different catalysts to study their effect on the mechanical, thermal, chemical and surface properties of the foams. A commercial foam pattern was used as the reference pattern to compare the aforementioned properties. Concentrations of the commercial catalysts were optimized to obtain foams with similar mechanical properties to the commercial foam. Morphological characterization of the foams was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the characteristic functional groups. Thermal characterization was performed by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Encapsulation of Bacterial Metabolic Infiltrates Isolated from Different Bacillus Strains in Chitosan Nanoparticles as Potential Green Chemistry-Based Biocontrol Agents against Radopholus similis

    Hilary Ureña-Saborío1*, Sergio Madrigal-Carballo1, Jorge Sandoval2, José R. Vega-Baudrit3, Alejandro Rodríguez-Morales2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 290-299, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634119
    Abstract Currently there is a trend towards reducing the use of agrochemicals in developing countries. However, they are still being applied intensively in tropical countries. Thus, there is a trend towards developing new products based on natural chemicals for pest control, leading to second-generation pesticides incorporating nano- and biotechnologies. Costa Rica is one of the largest producers of bananas in the world. One of the most important pests of banana and plantain crops is the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne. Highly toxic chemical compounds have traditionally been used to control this specific pest in banana plants, which can have dangerous… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Structural Refinement of Titanium-Aluminum-Niobium Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    Joaquín E. González-Hernández1, Jorge M. Cubero-Sesin1,2*, Elena Ulate-Kolitsky1, Priscilla Navarro1, Stephen Petretti1, Zenji Horita3,4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 300-306, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634120
    Abstract In this work, a modification of the microstructure of a commercial Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy was accomplished by high-pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature, to produce a bulk nanostructure on discs of 10 mm diameter and ~0.8 mm thickness. The metallographic analyses of the discs were performed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results confirmed the presence of aluminum (Al) and niobium (Nb) as the sole alloying elements, promoting a duplex (α + β) titanium (Ti) microstructure prior to HPT processing. After HPT processing, nanostructure refinement was attained, reflected in the X-ray diffraction profiles as broadening… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Tailoring the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch with Bamboo Powder and/or Hollow Glass Microspheres

    Liliane Cruz Gomes de Souza Santos1*, Eliane Ayres2, Flávio Renato de Góes Padula1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 307-312, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634121
    Abstract In this study, bamboo powder and/or hollow glass microspheres were added to thermoplastic cassava starch in order to overcome its drawbacks. The composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile testing, water contact angle measurement and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), in addition to their thermal properties. The mechanical strength of the composites showed a general decline with increasing bamboo powder content while the water contact angles increased up to 15% of bamboo powder content (% w/w dry starch). The addition of hollow glass microspheres provides an optimal balance between hydrophobicity and mechanical strength. The results pointed to improved properties that… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Synthesis and Reinforcement of Thermostable Polymers Using Renewable Resources

    Nicole Segura Salas1, Felipe Orozco Gutiérrez3, Luis Daniel Mora Murillo2, Yendry Corrales Ureña3, Shakira Johnson1, José Vega Baudrit3, Rodolfo Jesús González-Paz3*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 313-322, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634122
    Abstract Vegetable oils are being used for the production of biodegradable polymers, opening new possibilities for the synthesis of greener materials that could compete in national markets with petroleum-based polymers. In this study, castor oil and a catalyst (cobalt[II] naphtenate as promotor and MEKP as initiator) from local stores and styrene in different ratios were used to produce thermostable polymers. The kinetics of the polymerization reaction was followed by infrared spectroscopy. A polymeric material was synthetized which presents good mechanical properties. Therefore, composites were produced using 1 wt% of microcellulose extracted from biomass waste as reinforcement or 1 wt% microsilica to… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus megaterium DSM 32 from Residual Glycerol of the Bioenergy Industry

    Enzo Alvarado-Cordero1, Gabriela Montes de Oca-Vásquez2, Reinaldo Pereira-Reyes2, José Vega-Baudrit2, Marianelly Esquivel-Alfaro1*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.5, No.3-4, pp. 323-331, 2017, DOI:10.7569/JRM.2017.634123
    Abstract Biodegradable polymers from renewable resources are generating growing interest in the plastic industry because they have properties similar to synthetic polymers. Polyhydroxyalkanoates, mainly polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), have mechanical and physicochemical properties very similar to their synthetic counterparts. This work explores the use of residual glycerol from the bioenergy industry for the production of PHB by Bacillus megaterium DSM 32. The glycerol works as a source of carbon and energy. Raw glycerol was purified with sulfuric acid in order to neutralize saponified fatty acids. The purification process generated three different phases. One of the phases was the glycerol-rich layer; this layer was… More >

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