Journals / JRM / Vol.10, No.4


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Nowadays, fabrication of high-performance benzoxazine thermosetting resins from bio-mass has spawn extensive interest owing to the increasing awareness of sustainable development. However, most bio-based benzoxazine thermosetting resins suffer from a certain flammability, which hampers their applications. This review provides the state of the current art of flame retardant bio-based benzoxazine resins derived from various bio-mass including diphenolic acid, vanillin, daidzein, cardanol, furfurylamine, etc.
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  • REVIEW

    Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins

    Hongliang Ding, Xin Wang*, Lei Song, Yuan Hu
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 871-895, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018150
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Benzoxazines have attracted wide attention from academics all over the world because of their unique properties. However, most of the production and preparation of benzoxazine resins depends on petroleum resources now, especially bisphenol A-based benzoxazine. Therefore, owing to the environmental impacts, the development of bio-based benzoxazines is gaining more and more interest to substitute petroleum-based benzoxazines. Similar to petroleum-based benzoxazines, most of bio-based benzoxazines suffer from flammability. Thus, it is necessary to endow bio-based benzoxazines with outstanding flame retardancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest advance in flame retardant bio-based benzoxazines. First, three methods of the… More > Graphic Abstract

    Recent Advances in Flame Retardant Bio-Based Benzoxazine Resins

  • ARTICLE

    Mechanical Properties and Microcosmic Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Modified by Compound Admixtures

    Song Yang1, Bing Qi1, Zubin Ai1, Zhensheng Cao1, Shiqin He2,*, Lijun Li3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 897-908, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016653
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recycled Concrete Towards a Sustainable Society)
    Abstract It has become a research hotspot to explore raw material substitutes of concrete. It is important to research the mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with slag powder (SP) and rubber particle (RP) replacing cement and coarse aggregate, respectively. 12 kinds of composite modified self-compacting concrete (CMSCC) specimens were prepared by using 10%, 20% and 30% SP and 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% RP. The rheological properties, mechanical properties and microstructure of the CMSCC were investigated. Results indicate that the workability, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of CMSCC prepared by 20% SP and less than 40% RP… More >

  • REVIEW

    Potential Economic Value of Chitin and Its Derivatives as Major Biomaterials of Seafood Waste, with Particular Reference to Southeast Asia

    Hsiao Wei Tan1, Zhi Yin Joan Lim2, Nur Airina Muhamad3, Fong Fong Liew4,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 909-938, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018183
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based/Degradable Materials towards A Sustainable Future)
    Abstract With a growing population, changes in consumerism behavior and trends in consumption in Indo-Pacific Asia, our seafood processing and consumption practices produce a large volume of waste products. There are several advantages in regulating and sustaining shellfish processing industries. The major advantage of waste management is that it leads to better conservation of natural resources in the long run. Shrimp shell waste contains useful biomaterials, which are still untapped due to inadequate waste disposal and solid waste management. Chitin, the major component of shell waste, can be extracted either chemically or biologically. The chemical extraction approaches, which use acids and… More > Graphic Abstract

    Potential Economic Value of Chitin and Its Derivatives as Major Biomaterials of Seafood Waste, with Particular Reference to Southeast Asia

  • ARTICLE

    Development and Application of a High-Volume Recycled Powder Solidifying Material for Waterworks Sludge

    Xiang Deng1, Sudong Hua1,*, Fan Xia2, Yanfang Zhang2, Dapeng Guo3, Xinxing Zhu3, Defei Zhu3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 939-953, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016874
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Trends in Sustainable Materials for Energy Conversion, CO2 Capture and Pollution Control)
    Abstract Recycled powder (RP) is produced as a by-product during the process of recycling construction and demolition (C&D) wastes, presenting a low additional value. Using RP-based solidifying material can not only improve its utilization efficiency, but also reduce the cost of commercial solidifying materials. To date, this is the best solidifying material utilized to dispose the original waterworks sludge (OWS) with high moisture contents (60%), and the product could be used to fabricate non-fired bricks. This has become a new environment-friendly technology of “using waste to treat waste”. In this paper, the influence of different particle sizes and dosages of RP… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Rapid Immobilization of Transferable Ni in Soil by Fe78Si9B13 Amorphous Zero-Valent Iron

    Liefei Pei, Xiangyun Zhang, Zizhou Yuan*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 955-968, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016961
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: New Insights on Nanomaterials for Energy, Environmental and Agricultural Applications)
    Abstract Fe-Si-B amorphous zero-valent iron has attracted wide attention because of its efficient remediation of heavy metals and dye wastewater. In this paper, the remediation effect of amorphous zero-valent iron powder (Fe78Si9B13AP) on Ni contaminated soil was investigated. Results show that the immobilization efficiency of nickel in soil by Fe78Si9B13AP with low iron content is higher than that by ZVI. The apparent activation energies of the reactions of Fe78Si9B13AP with Ni2+ ions is 25.31 kJ/mol. After continuing the reaction for 7 days, Ni2+ ions is mainly transformed into monoplasmatic nickel (Ni0) and nickel combined with iron (hydroxide) oxides. Microstructure investigations show… More >

  • REVIEW

    Application of Fe-Based Amorphous Alloy in Industrial Wastewater Treatment: A Review

    Liefei Pei, Xiangyun Zhang, Zizhou Yuan*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 969-991, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017617
    Abstract Amorphous alloy (MGs) is a solid alloy with disordered atomic accumulation obtained by ultra-rapid solidification of alloy melt. The atom deviates from the equilibrium position and is in metastable state. Up to now, a large number of MGs have been applied to the treatment of dye and heavy metal contaminated wastewater and ideal experimental results have been obtained. However, there is no literature to systematically summarize the chemical reaction and degradation mechanism in the process of degradation. On the basis of reviewing the classification, application, and synthesis of MGs, this paper introduces in detail the chemical reactions such as decolorization,… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Experimental Study on the Bending Properties of Grouting Butt Joints Reinforced by Steel Plate Embedded in Bamboo Tube

    Ting Huang, Xin Zhuo*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 993-1005, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017373
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based/Degradable Materials towards A Sustainable Future)
    Abstract The construction of grouting butt joints of bamboo tubes is simple and efficient. However, when the joint is bent, the low tensile strength of the mortar easily leads to cracking of the mortar prior to the failure of the bamboo tube. In this paper, a comparative test of the bending capacity was performed on grouting butt joints reinforced by nonperforated, fully perforated, and semiperforated steel plates embedded in bamboo tubes to obtain the load-displacement curves and ultimate bearing capacity of various specimens. The strengthening effect of CFRP pasted on bamboo tubes was also studied. The results show that the opening… More > Graphic Abstract

    Experimental Study on the Bending Properties of Grouting Butt Joints Reinforced by Steel Plate Embedded in Bamboo Tube

  • ARTICLE

    Preparation of Micro-Iron Ore Tailings by Wet-Grinding and Its Application in Sulphoaluminate Cement

    Yingchun Yang1,*, Liqing Chen1, Xingdong Sun1, Yuguang Mao2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1007-1023, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017372
    Abstract Herein, micro iron ore tailings (micro-IOTs) were prepared by wet-grinding and applied to improve sulphoaluminate cement (SAC) performance. The physicochemical properties of micro-IOTs were investigated by particle size analysis, XRD, and XPS. The hydrates trait and the hydration mechanism of micro-IOTs-SAC composite were studied by XRD, TGA, MIP, and SEM. The results demonstrated that micro-IOTs with an average grain diameter of 517 nm could be obtained by wet-grinding. The setting time of SAC gradually decreased with increasing micro-IOTs content. By adding 2% micro-IOTs, the compressive strengths of SAC pastes were enhanced about 22% and 10% at 4 h and 28… More >

  • ARTICLE

    The Effect of Bio-Oil on High-Temperature Performance of Bio-Oil Recycled Asphalt Binders

    Hengcong Zhang*, Jianmin Wu, Zhong Qin, Yin Luo
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1025-1037, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017483
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives-2021)
    Abstract Bio-oil recycled asphalt binders in road engineering can help solve the problem of oil shortage and reduce the environmental pollution and sustainability. This paper investigated the road performance of the aged asphalt binder by adding bio-oil so that the aged asphalt binder could be reused to reach purpose of reuse. The residual soybean oil was selected as rejuvenator and blended with aged asphalt binder at 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%, respectively. The results showed that bio-oil increased the penetration of aged asphalt binder, the penetration of bio-oil recycled asphalt binder with a bio-oil content of 6% reached the standard of… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Crystallization and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Coir Fiber Reinforced Poly(Butylene Succinate) Biocomposites

    Xu Yan1, Changheng Liu2, Liang Qiao1, Kaili Zhu2, Hongsheng Tan1,*, Shuhua Dong1, Zhitao Lin1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1039-1048, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017239
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Natural Fibre Composites: Design, Materials Selection and Fabrication)
    Abstract The crystallization behavior, crystal morphology and form, and viscoelastic behavior of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and coir fiber/PBS composites (CPB) were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results of DSC measurement show that the crystallization temperature increases with the filling of coir fibers. POM images reveal that the spherulitic size and crystallization behavior of PBS are influenced by the coir fibers in the composites. XRD curves show that the crystal form of pure PBS and CPB are remaining almost identical. In addition, the storage modulus of CPB significantly… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Preparation of Hollow-Porous Rosin-Based Polyurethane Microspheres with pH-Responsive Characteristics

    Caili Yu, Hao Liu, Jintao Shao, Faai Zhang*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1049-1061, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017315
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based/Degradable Materials towards A Sustainable Future)
    Abstract Preparation of polymer microspheres from naturally occurring resource is a challenge. Here, a rosin-based polyol (RAG) was used to prepare polyurethane resin (RPU) firstly, and then act as both self-assembled precursor and emulsifier, rosin based polyurethane microspheres (RPUMs) were prepared. In the process of self-emulsification, the RPU formed vesicles by self-assembly. The outer shell of the vesicle consisted of hydrophilic segments, while the inner shell contained the hydrophobic phase. After cross-linking the RPU and removal of the solvent in the core, the porous-hollow microspheres with pH-sensitive were obtained. The microspheres were characterized by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)… More > Graphic Abstract

    Preparation of Hollow-Porous Rosin-Based Polyurethane Microspheres with pH-Responsive Characteristics

  • ARTICLE

    The Influence of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Unconfined Compressive Strength of Lignin Fiber-Reinforced Loess

    Zhongnan Gao1,2,#, Xiumei Zhong1,2,#, Qian Wang1,2,*, Yongqi Su3, Jun Wang1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1063-1080, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017374
    Abstract In the seasonal permafrost region with loess distribution, the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the engineering performance of reinforced loess must be paid attention to. Many studies have shown that the use of fiber materials can improve the engineering performance of soil and its ability to resist freeze-thaw cycles. At the same time, as eco-environmental protection has become the focus, which has been paid more and more attention to, it has become a trend to find new environmentally friendly improved materials that can replace traditional chemical additives. The purpose of this paper uses new environmental-friendly improved materials to reinforce the… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Dynamic Mechanical and Chemorheology Analysis for the Blended Epoxy System with Polyurethane Modified Resin

    Xue Xin1,#, Yu Rong1,#, Linping Su1, Zhengmei Qiu1, Chenjun Yang1, Ming Liang1,*, Ping Ji2, Guoqiang Zhong3, Zhanyong Yao1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1081-1095, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018021
    Abstract As the important matrix material, epoxy resin has been widely used in the composites for various fields. On account of the poor toughness of epoxy resin limiting their suitability for advanced applications, considerable interests have been conducted to modify the epoxy resin to meet the engineering requirements. In this study, the bio-based polyurethane (PU) modified resin was adopted to modify the pure bisphenol-A epoxy by blending method with various proportions. Aiming to illuminate the curing behavior, mechanical and thermal properties, the blended epoxy systems were characterized by viscosity-time analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) at different frequencies and temperatures, mechanical tensile… More >

  • REVIEW

    A Review of Various Sources of Chitin and Chitosan in Nature

    Benedict Terkula Iber1,2,*, Nor Azman Kasan1,*, Donald Torsabo1,2, Jenifer Wese Omuwa2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1097-1123, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018142
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract Chitin was first discovered by its name from the Greek word “chiton”, which means “mail coat”. It is indeed a polysaccharide made up of naturally occurring acetyl-D-glucosamine monomers. Hatchett was the first researcher who extracted chitin from the shells of mollusks (crabs and lobsters), prawns, and crayfish in 1799. Later in 1811, Henri Braconnot discovered chitin in the cell walls of mushrooms and called it “fungine”. Chitin and chitosan are abundant in the biosphere as essential components of many organisms’ exoskeletons and as by-products of the global seafood industry. The biopolymer must be deacetylated before chitosan can be produced. It… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Borate-Modified, Flame-Retardant Paper Packaging Materials for Archive Conservation

    Juanli Wang1, Ming Cao2, Jiaxin Li1, Kaiyuan Li1, Xiaolian Chao1, Bingjie Mai1, Yuhu Li1,*, Jing Cao1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1125-1136, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018147
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-based Halogen-free Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials)
    Abstract Paper packaging materials like cardboards are widely used to protect archives which are a major kind of cultural relics. Unfortunately, paper is a combustible material, and thus exploring environment-friendly flame retardant for paper-based archive packaging material plays an important role. Herein, boric acid, borax and disodium octaborate are used to modify the craft paper-based packaging materials for archive conservation to improve fire safety. The modified craft paper exhibits much higher flame retardancy than the pristine one dose based on vertical burning tests, without much influence on mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning… More > Graphic Abstract

    Borate-Modified, Flame-Retardant Paper Packaging Materials for Archive Conservation

  • ARTICLE

    Production of Bio-Calcium Oxide Derived from Hatchery Eggshell Waste Using an Industrial-Scale Car Bottom Furnace

    Ajchara Imkum Putkham1, Suwanan Chuakham2, Yuwadee Chaiyachet2, Tanapon Suwansopa2, Apipong Putkham2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1137-1151, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018560
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Material from Agricultural Waste and By-Product and Its Applications)
    Abstract The valorization of eggshell waste as bio-calcium oxide is crucial for pollution prevention and supporting sustainable development. There are several reports on the thermal conversion of eggshell waste to calcium oxide for the partial or complete substitution of natural lime applications. However, this paper reports the thermal decomposition of large amounts of hatchery eggshell waste on an industrial-scale car bottom furnace for the first time. The hatchery eggshell waste was sundried and placed into five stacked trays in the car bottom furnace. The calcination of the eggshell waste was conducted at 900°C for 3 and 4 h under an atmosphere… More > Graphic Abstract

    Production of Bio-Calcium Oxide Derived from Hatchery Eggshell Waste Using an Industrial-Scale Car Bottom Furnace

  • ARTICLE

    Fly Ash/Paraffin Composite Phase Change Material Used to Treat Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Expansive Soil in Cold Regions

    Yong Chen1, Yinghao Huang1,2,*, Min Wu1 and Shuo Wang1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.4, pp. 1153-1173, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018856
    Abstract Phase change materials (PCMs) can store large amounts of energy in latent heat and release it during phase changes, which could be used to improve the freeze-thaw performance of soil. The composite phase change material was prepared with paraffin as the PCM and 8% Class C fly ash (CFA) as the supporting material. Laboratory tests were conducted to reveal the influence of phase change paraffin composite Class C fly ash (CFA-PCM) on the thermal properties, volume changes and mechanical properties of expansive soil. The results show that PCM failed to establish a good improvement effect due to leakage. CFA can… More >

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