Journals / JRM / Vol.10, No.2


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In the article Qiuju Zhang and her co-workers have comprehensively evaluated the manufacturing process of the chopped and continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites by 3D printing. The content and distribution arrangement of continuous fibers were designed to study the effect on tensile and fatigue properties. The fracture morphology and the printed surface quality were analyzed by the digital optical microscope.
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  • ARTICLE

    Synthesis of Lignin-Based Polyacid in an Acidic Ionic Liquid: A Green Method to Improve the Performance of Lignin as Catalyst in Urea-Formaldehyde Resin

    Hamed Younesi-Kordkheili1,*, Antonio Pizzi2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 237-246, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017851
    Abstract The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of ionic liquid treated lignin-based polyacid as a catalyst for urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. Esterification of lignin was carried out, without any catalyst, with anhydride maleic and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Bmim][HSO4] as acidic ionic liquid to form maleated lignin-based polyacids (MA-IL). The performance of MA-IL as UF resin catalyst was respectively compared to hyroxymethylated lignin-based polyacid (MA-HL) and to NH4Cl. The FTIR analysis indicated that the proportion of -COOH and C-O bonds increased due to the esterification of lignin with ionic liquid rather than its hyroxymethylation. Physicochemical tests indicated that the… More >

  • REVIEW

    Recent Advance on Torrefaction Valorization and Application of Biochar from Agricultural Waste for Soil Remediation

    Kai Su*, Qirui Qin, Jingyu Yang, Linxiao Li, Shaoqi Deng
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 247-261, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.018146
    Abstract With the increase of global proportion of soil pollution and the number of areas at risk, researchers have sought to develop various pathways to repair or relieve the pollutants in soil. Among them, biochar represents one multidimensional soil amendment which has got great deal of attention on its physicochemical properties towards the removal or mitigation of contaminants in soil. A variety of agricultural wastes like straw and manure prepared from different torrefaction process have been employed as feedstock for the production of biochar, which can be applied to the contaminated soil to facilitate the growing environment for crops, and to… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Lignocellulosic Micro and Nanofibrillated Cellulose Produced by Steam Explosion for Wood Adhesive Formulations

    Saad Nader1,2, Felipe Guzman3, Raphael Becar1, César Segovia4, Cecilia Fuentealba3, Miguel Peirera3, Evelyne Mauret2, Nicolas Brosse1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 263-271, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017923
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives-2021)
    Abstract The reinforcing impact of Lignocellulosic micro and nanofibrillated cellulose (L-MNFCs) obtained from Eucalyptus Globulus bark in Urea-Formaldehyde UF adhesive was tested. L-MNFCs were prepared by an environmentally friendly, low-cost process using a combination process involving steam explosion followed by refining and ultra-fine grinding. Obtained L-MNFCs showed a web-like morphology with some aggregates and lignin nanodroplets. They present a mixture of residual fibers and fine elements with a width varying between 5 nm to 20 μm, respectively. The effects of the addition of low amounts of L-MNFCs (1% wt.) on the properties of three different adhesives (Urea-Formaldehyde UF, Phenol-Formaldehyde PF, and Tannin-Hexamine TH)… More > Graphic Abstract

    Lignocellulosic Micro and Nanofibrillated Cellulose Produced by Steam Explosion for Wood Adhesive Formulations

  • REVIEW

    A Review of Basic Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Bamboo Lumber

    Assima Dauletbek1, Haitao Li1,2,*, Rodolfo Lorenzo3, Ileana Corbi4, Ottavia Corbi4, Mahmud Ashraf5
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 273-300, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017805
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Composite Materials and Structures-2021)
    Abstract Over the past decade, the physical and mechanical performances of laminated bamboo lumber (LBL)–a bamboo-based structural material, have been extensively studied using experimental, analytical, and numerical approaches. This paper presents a review of existing knowledge in the literature about the mechanical properties of LBL. The paper involved the review of the response of LBL to different types of loading such as tension, bending, compression, and shear. Based on results of the literature reviewed, the strength of LBL parallel to grain was 90–124 MPa with MOE of 10700 MPa in tension, 29.55–72.60 MPa, and MOE of 8396–11022 MPa in compression, 63.87–128.4 MPa, and MOE of 8320–10912 MPa… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Performance Evaluation of a Novel and Effective Water-Soluble Aldehydes as Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Aggressive Hydrochloric Medium

    Yun Wang1, Tiantian Wang2, Bei Wang1, Wei Chang3, Jiangli Cao1, Lihua Hu3, Minxu Lu1, Lei Zhang1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 301-327, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.015518
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Green Coating and Film for Degeneration Protection)
    Abstract A novel and effective water-soluble aldehydes (β-HA) as corrosion inhibitor was synthesized for N80 steel corrosion in 15% HCl solution, and the corrosion inhibition performance was evaluated by using weight loss, electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The results show that synthesized β-HA showed excellent corrosion performance compared with MHB and PE for carbon steel in 15% HCl solution compared with MHB and PE, and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of the inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency of β-HA at 8 mmol/L reached the maximum value 94.08%. The inhibitor acted as… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Process Evaluation, Tensile Properties and Fatigue Resistance of Chopped and Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by 3D Printing

    Wei Chen1,2, Qiuju Zhang1,2,*, Han Cao1,2, Ye Yuan1,2
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 329-358, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016374
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Green, Recycled and Intelligent Technologies in Printing and Packaging)
    Abstract The aim of this article was to comprehensively evaluate the manufacturing process, tensile properties and fatigue resistance of the chopped and continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTPCs) by 3D printing. The main results included: the common defects of the printed CFRTPCs contained redundant and accumulation defects, scratch and warping defects; the continuous fiber contributed to the dimensional stability and accuracy of width and thickness; associations between mass percentage of fiber reinforcement and the averages of elastic modulus, strain at break and ultimate tensile strength were approximately linear based on tensile test results; the fatigue resistance improved with the increasing fiber… More > Graphic Abstract

    Process Evaluation, Tensile Properties and Fatigue Resistance of Chopped and Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by 3D Printing

  • ARTICLE

    Assisted Compatibility, and Balanced Regulation of the Mechanical, Thermal, and Antioxidant Activity of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Chinese Bayberry Tannin Extract Films Using Different Di-Aldehydes as Cross-Linkers

    Jingjing Liao1,2, Jinxing Li2, Fuxian Yang2, Yan Zhu2, Hongyan Wang3, Guanben Du1,2,*, Hisham Essawy4, Xiaojian Zhou2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 359-372, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2021.016335
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Food Packaging Materials Based on Renewable Resources)
    Abstract Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based films containing Chinese bayberry tannin (BT) were prepared by cross-linking using glyoxal, glutaraldehyde and dialdehyde starch, individually. The presence of cross-linkers was evident to promote the transparency and decrease the moisture content of PVA/BT films, while the water solubility stayed almost unchanged in the cross-linked PVA/BT films. All cross-linkers provided promotion of the water vapor permeability, mechanical property and thermal stability of PVA/BT films. The best water vapor barrier capacity was found in case of glutaraldehyde cross-linked PVA/BT film, while the highest tensile strength was encountered in case of glyoxal cross-linked PVA/BT films, compared with the uncross-linked… More > Graphic Abstract

    Assisted Compatibility, and Balanced Regulation of the Mechanical, Thermal, and Antioxidant Activity of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Chinese Bayberry Tannin Extract Films Using Different Di-Aldehydes as Cross-Linkers

  • ARTICLE

    Study on Performance Regulation and Mechanism of Quicklime and Biopolymer on Hemihydrate Phosphogypsum

    Zaibo Zhou1, Juanhong Liu1,2,3,*, Kun Luo1, Aixiang Wu1,3, Hongjiang Wang1,3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 373-384, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016380
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives)
    Abstract In order to reduce the influence of impurities in hemihydrate phosphogypsum(HPG) on the environment and improve the workability of HPG, the effects of the content of quicklime and types of biopolymer (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, xanthan gum, sodium polyacrylate(PAANa)) on the compressive strength, softening coefficient and ultrasonic velocity of HPG were evaluated. When the content of quicklime was 1.5% and the content of PAANa was 0.2%, HPG had the best mechanical properties and workability, its water retention rate can be increased by 5.8%, and unconfined compressive strength of 3 days increased by 10.3% and 7 days increased by 13.1%. Through the analysis… More > Graphic Abstract

    Study on Performance Regulation and Mechanism of Quicklime and Biopolymer on Hemihydrate Phosphogypsum

  • ARTICLE

    Study on Preparation of Lignin-Containing Nanocellulose from Bamboo Parenchyma

    Wenli Gu1, Shiyi Zeng1, Assima Dauletbek2, Bin Xu1,3,*, Xinzhou Wang1, Man Yuan1, Yanni Gu1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 385-399, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016457
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Wood Composites from Renewable Materials)
    Abstract Bamboo vascular bundle fiber and parenchyma (BP) are separated by high-temperature treatment with saturated steam. Bamboo vascular bundle fiber is widely used in the market, but how to develop and utilize parenchyma tissue is a difficult problem. The sulfated cellulose nanofibers (ANFs) were obtained by sulfating BP with a deep eutectic solvent (DES), which provided a theoretical basis for the value-added utilization of BP. Using DES as the reaction medium and reagent, the BP was grafted with a sulfonic acid group to form a gel substance in water, ANFs and nanocellulose gel were obtained by ultrasonic cell crusher. The highest… More > Graphic Abstract

    Study on Preparation of Lignin-Containing Nanocellulose from Bamboo Parenchyma

  • ARTICLE

    Study of the Single Shear Performance of a Joint with a New Beech and Self-Tapping Screw Composite Dowel

    Xudong Zhu1,2,3, Yingying Xue2, Xuewen Zhang2, Pengfei Qi2, Jie Shen2, Changtong Mei1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 401-413, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016464
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Research and Innovations in Engineered Timber and Mass Timber Products for Sustainable Built-Environment)
    Abstract A new beech and self-tapping screw composite dowel is proposed and studied, its performance being compared with that of beech dowels and self-tapping screws alone. The single shear performance of components connected by composite dowels was tested. Results show that the dowels are a good choice for components requiring high stiffness. Screws remain a good choice for components requiring excellent seismic performance. Combination group presents similar maximum load stiffness to those of composite dowels, but other ductility parameters are superior for composite dowels. The best connection mode was provided by two composite dowels. Based on connecting two points, structural elements… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Strong and Tough PAm/SA Hydrogel with Highly Strain Sensitivity

    Lingqin Zhang, Qifeng Jiang, Yiming Zhao, Jie Yuan, Xiaoying Zha, Haojiang Xie, Fankai Kong, Xingliang Xiong*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 415-430, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016650
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biomass-Derived Functional Hydrogels)
    Abstract The hydrogel is a preferred material for flexible wearable sensors. In practical application, it should have high-efficiency mechanical toughness and self-healing performance. Besides, hydrogel requires good affinity and adhesion because of its contact with the skin. In this experiment, we made an ultra-tough hydrogel with excellent cell affinity and adhesion. We used sodium alginate (SA) and polyacrylamide (PAm) mixture as a flexible base fluid. Polydopamine reduce graphene oxide (prGO) was used as conductive nanofiller, and then PAm-prGO-SA semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel was formed through Am radical polymerization. The presence of prGO endows the hydrogels with excellent electrical conductivity. Simultaneously, some non-reduced… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Tunable Luminescence Properties and Elucidating the Electronic Structures of Single-Phase Spherical BaWO4: Dy3+, Tm3+, Eu3+ Phosphors for Warm-White-Lighting

    Zun Bi1,2,3, Ke Jia1,2,3, Yunfei Liu1,2,3,*, Yinong Lyu1,2,3,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 431-451, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016735
    Abstract A series of uniform single-phase spherical BaWO4: Dy3+, Tm3+, Eu3+ phosphors were prepared via a microwave hydrothermal method by using trisodium citrate dehydrate as surfactant. The phase structure, morphology and photoluminescence properties were measured by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and fluorescence spectrometer, respectively. The results show that uniform spherical microcrystals with diameters in the range of 2–4 μm are obtained. And the phase and morphology of samples are not significantly changed by doping rare earth (RE3+) ions. Under the excitation wavelength of 356 and 365 nm, the samples BaWO4: 0.03Dy3+, yTm3+ can emit cold white light. In order to… More >

  • ARTICLE

    High-Temperature Deformation and Low-Temperature Fracture Behavior of Steel Slag Rubber Asphalt Mixture Surface Layer

    Zhiqiang Shu1, Jianmin Wu1,*, Shi Chen2, Shan Yi2, Shaoqing Li1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 453-467, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.016828
    Abstract Steel slag is regarded as one of the most widespread solid by-products of steel smelting with little commercial value. It can play a vital role in the construction industry especially in the field of transportation infrastructure construction. However, there are few evaluation systems established on the high-temperature deformation and low-temperature fracture behavior of steel slag rubber asphalt mixture (SSRAM). This study explores the performance of SSRAM by uniaxial penetration test, Semi-Circular Bending (SCB) test and evaluates test data through regression analysis. The uniaxial penetration test results shows that the failure deformation of SSRAM increases with the increase of steel slag… More >

  • REVIEW

    Heavy Metal Remediation in Sludge Compost: Recent Progress

    Rongwei Xiong1,#, Xiufang Gao1,2,#,*, Xinyue Tu3, Yilin Mao1, Li Jiang1, Lu Zheng3, Yitong Du3
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 469-486, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017226
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biochar Based Materials for a Green Future)
    Abstract The safe and efficient disposal and utilization of sludge are major issues to be solved in solid waste treatment and environmental protection due to the complex characteristics of sludge and the low rate of innocuous treatments. Composting is a process of decomposing organic matter and transformed low-molecular organic acids into high-molecular humus substances under the action of microorganisms. Although land-use after composting has become an important direction for sludge treatment, heavy metal pollution is still the bottleneck problem restricting land use of sludge compost. Adding zeolite, hydroxyapatite, and other conditioning agents to the composting process affects the concentration or form… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo Connections with External Clamp Steel Plates

    Shidong Nie1,2,*, Song Ran1,2, Di Wu1,2,3, Jieyu Chen1,2, Hui Wang1,2, Qike Wei4
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 487-510, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017275
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Research and Innovations in Engineered Timber and Mass Timber Products for Sustainable Built-Environment)
    Abstract The Moso bamboo, a renewable green building material used in various new green buildings, have received extensive attention with the promotion of the concept of green buildings. To explore the mechanical properties of Moso bamboo connections with external clamp steel plates, the 16 specimens were designed by changing the bolt diameters and the end distances of the bolt holes. Their static tension tests were conducted to investigate bearing capacities and failure modes of different connection configurations. Based on test results, three failure modes of these connections were obtained, including the shear failure of bolt shank, bearing failure of bolt hole… More > Graphic Abstract

    Mechanical Properties of Moso Bamboo Connections with External Clamp Steel Plates

  • ARTICLE

    Performance of Densified Wood Glulam as Building Bio-Material

    Reza Hajihassani1, Saman Ghahri1, Seyedeh Masoomeh Zamani2, Amir Nourbakhsh1,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 511-526, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017781
    Abstract In this research, some practical aspects of densified wood glulam were investigated. For this aim, poplar wood specimens were densified by hygro-thermo-mechanical technique. Glulam specimens were produced by finger joint technique and polyurethane glue was used as resin. Physical and mechanical properties of glulams were investigated according to ASTM D 143-09, ASTM D 905-03 and ISO 8375 standards. Based on obtained results, using this process (steam and pressurize compaction) resulted in improvement of physical and mechanical properties of glulam specimens. Optical microscopic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) pictures were proved structural changes on wood material during of applied technique. Generally,… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Different Bamboo and Wood Materials in Bending Failure Process

    Ting Wang1, Zhiqiang Wang1,*, Yin Yang1, Jianhui Zhou2,*
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 527-540, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017955
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Bio-Composite Materials and Structures-2021)
    Abstract The acoustic emission (AE) technique can perform non-destructive monitoring of the internal damage development of bamboo and wood materials. In this experiment, the mechanical properties of different bamboo and wood (bamboo scrimber, bamboo plywood and SPF (Spruce-pine-fir) dimension lumber) during four-point loading tests were compared. The AE activities caused by loadings were investigated through the single parameter analysis and K-means cluster analysis. Results showed that the bending strength of bamboo scrimber was 3.6 times that of bamboo plywood and 2.7 times that of SPF dimension lumber, respectively. Due to the high strength and toughness of bamboo, the AE signals of… More > Graphic Abstract

    Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Different Bamboo and Wood Materials in Bending Failure Process

  • ARTICLE

    Study on Preparation of Nitrogen-Doped Hierarchically Porous and High-Performance Carbon Materials from Seaweed Biomass

    Kaihan Xie1, Yamin Hu1,*, Stephen Afonaa-Mensah2, Chuan Yuan1, Bin Cao1, Shuang Wang1,*, Qian Wang1
    Journal of Renewable Materials, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 541-560, 2022, DOI:10.32604/jrm.2022.017911
    Abstract Use Enteromorpha clathrate as a carbon and nitrogen precursor could obtain the N-doped porous carbon materials by two-step pyrolysis. In this paper, the exogenous nitrogen (urea, melamine) and activating agents (KOH, ZnCl2) were employed for the production of higher-performance carbon materials from seaweed biomass. SEM, BET, FTIR, XRD, XPS, Raman and ultimate analyses were carried out to investigate the morpho-structural and elemental peculiarities of the carbonaceous materials. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV) , galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and cyclic charge-discharge tests were carried out to examine the electrochemical properties of the samples. The results showed that electrochemical performance of the carbonaceous materials… More > Graphic Abstract

    Study on Preparation of Nitrogen-Doped Hierarchically Porous and High-Performance Carbon Materials from Seaweed Biomass

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