Special Issue "Renewable and Biosourced Adhesives"

Submission Deadline: 01 December 2020 (closed)
Guest Editors
Antonio Pizzi is Prof. Emeritus of Industrial Chemistry, ENSTIB, University of Lorraine, France. Previously Prof of Polymer Chemisry and Head of the Chemistry Dept. of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Three doctorates (Dr. Chem, Rome, Italy, PhD, South Africa, D.Sc. South Africa). Several international scientific prizes (twice the finalist prize of the René Descartes top prize of the European Commission, in 2000 and 2005). Specialisations: thermosetting resins, synthesis and formulation of resins and wood adhesives, adhesives from natural products, polymer chemistry, polycondensation, wood panels and other composites technology, environment-friendly wood preservatives, materials science, wood welding. Author of 11 books published in New York and of 805 publications in refereed journals, and 41 patents, with his H-Index of 71.

Summary

The field of adhesives is in constant and rapid evolution with considerable novelties been published constantly. In particular the strong tred at present is to develop alternatives to synthetic oil-derived adhesives. A number of different trends are present on this front. Different approaches can be noticed such as (i) adhesives where a renewable biosourced material is used as partial but consistent substitution of an oil derived material leading to hybrid but definetely more enviroment friendly adhesives, and (ii) adhesives based totally or partially on synthesis materials but these being exclusively derived from totally biosourced renewable materials, and (iii) Adhesives based on totally renewable materials, modified or unmodified. All these three trends are strongly represented at present.



Keywords
aminoplastics adhesives, phenolic adhesives, polyurethane adhesives, non-isocyanate polyurethane adhesives (NIPU), acrylic adhesives, epoxy adhesives, renewable resources, environment friendly, partially or totally biobased.

Published Papers
  • The Spatial and Electronic Effects of Substituent Groups on the Thermal Curing of Bio-Based Benzoxazines
  • Abstract To explore the influence of substituent groups on thermally induced curing, eight new bio-based benzoxazines containing different substituent groups with different electron negativity and volumes were synthesized. The thermal curing of these bio-based benzoxazines was studied in detail. Combined with the curing reaction kinetics, simulation and calculation of Highest Occupied Molecular and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular values, the spatial and electronic effects of different substituent groups on the curing of benzoxazine was explored. It was found that when the substituent was located at the position directly connected to the N atom, the steric hindrance effect of the group was dominant. When… More
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  • Improving the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Red Clay by Combining Biopolymers with Fibers
  • Abstract To explore an environmentally friendly improvement measure for red clay, the function and mechanism of xanthan gum biopolymer and polypropylene fibers on the strength properties of red clay were investigated by unconfined compressive strength and scanning electron microscopy tests. The test results demonstrated that the contents and curing ages of xanthan gum had significant influences on the unconfined compressive strength of red clay. Compared with untreated soil, 1.5% xanthan gum content was the optimal ratio in which the strength increment was between 41.52 kPa and 64.73 kPa. On the other hand, the strength of xanthan gum-treated red clay increased, whereas… More
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  • Study on the Bonding Performance of the Moso Bamboo Dowel Welded to a Poplar Substrate Joint by High-Speed Rotation
  • Abstract The wood friction welding technique with its high bonding strength, low cost, high efficiency, and without any adhesive has been increasing concern in China. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) and poplar (Populus sp.) are widely planted and used in the furniture industry, interior decoration, and wood structure construction in China. The aim of this work was to investigate the bonding performance of moso bamboo dowel rotation welded joints with different dowel/receiving hole diameter ratios. The results indicated that the ratio of dowel/receiving hole diameter was an important parameter that influenced the welding performance. The bonding strength of the bamboo-to-poplar welded joints… More
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  • Soy Protein Isolate Non-Isocyanates Polyurethanes (NIPU) Wood Adhesives
  • Abstract Soy-protein isolate (SPI) was used to prepare non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) thermosetting adhesives for wood panels by reacting it with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and hexamethylene diamine. Both linear as well as branched oligomers were obtained and identified, indicating how such oligomer structures could further cross-link to form a hardened network. Unusual structures were observed, namely carbamic acid-derived urethane linkages coupled with lactam structures. The curing of the adhesive was followed by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It appeared to follow a two stages process: First, at a lower temperature (maximum 130°C), the growth of linear oligomers occurred, finally forming a physically entangled network.… More
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  • Physicochemical Properties Comparative Analysis of Corn Starch and Cassava Starch, and Comparative Analysis as Adhesive
  • Abstract The morphology and properties of corn starch and cassava starch were compared by SEM, DSC and TGA. The effects of amylose and amylopectin content on starch properties were studied by FT-IR, XRD and XPS. The plywood was pressed with the prepared adhesive and the bonding strength of the plywood was tested to analyze the difference among the adhesives from different plant sources and the difference after blending PAPI prepolymer. FT-IR results showed that the hydroxyl peak of cassava starch was stronger and wider. TGA showed that the residue of cassava starch was lower, but the thermal stability of cassava starch… More
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  • Organosolv Lignin for Non-Isocyanate Based Polyurethanes (NIPU) as Wood Adhesive
  • Abstract A non-isocyanate-based polyurethane (NIPU) wood adhesive was produced from organosolv lignin, which is a bio-sourced raw material, available in large quantities and produced as a by-product of the paper industry. The formulation of this new lignin-based NIPU adhesive, which is presented, was chemically characterised by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectrometry and by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometry analyses. The oligomers formed were determined and showed that the three species involved in the NIPU adhesive preparation were formed by the co-reaction of the three reagents used: lignin, dimethyl carbonate, and hexamethylene diamine. Linear and branched… More
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  • Synthetic Process of Bio-Based Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive Derived from Demethylated Wheat Straw Alkali Lignin and Its Curing Behavior
  • Abstract Lignin is a natural biopolymer with a complex three-dimensional network, commercially obtained from waste liquid of paper pulp and bioethanol production, and could be a candidate for preparation of environment-friendly bio-based polyphenol material. In the present work, the demethylated wheat straw alkali lignin (D-Lig), prepared by demethylation of wheat straw alkali lignin (Lig) using an in-situ generated Lewis acid, was used to synthesize bio-based phenol formaldehyde resin adhesive (D-LPF) applied in plywood. Effects of synthetic process’s factors, including lignin substitution for phenol, NaOH concentration and molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol, on the bonding strength and free formaldehyde content of… More
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  • Performance of Unidirectional Biocomposite Developed with Piptadeniastrum Africanum Tannin Resin and Urena Lobata Fibers as Reinforcement
  • Abstract The Piptadeniastrum Africanum bark tannin extract was characterized using MALDI TOF, ATR-FT MIR. It was used in the development of a resin with Vachellia nilotica extract as a biohardener. This tannin is consisting of Catechin, Quercetin, Chalcone, Gallocatechin, Epigallocatechin gallate, Epicatechin gallate. The gel time of the resin at natural pH (pH = 5.4) is 660 s and its MOE obtained by thermomechanical analysis is 3909 MPa. The tenacity of Urena lobata fibers were tested, woven into unidirectional mats (UD), and used as reinforcement in the development of biocomposite. The fibers tenacity at 20, 30 and 50 mm lengths are… More
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  • Study on the Soy Protein-Based Adhesive Cross-Linked by Glyoxal
  • Abstract Based on the ESI-MS and 13C-NMR analysis of the forms of glyoxal in acidic and alkaline solutions, the soy-based adhesive cross-linked by glyoxal was prepared in this work. The results showed that glyoxal existed in water in different forms at different pH levels. Under alkaline conditions, glyoxal transformed to glycolate through the intramolecular disproportionation reaction. Under acidic conditions, although some of glyoxal transformed to glycolate as what happened under alkaline conditions, most of glyoxal molecules existed in the form of five- or six-membered cyclic ether structure. No ethylene tetraol or free aldehyde group was actually detected under these conditions. Although… More
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  • An Eco-Friendly Wood Adhesive from Alfalfa Leaf Protein
  • Abstract According to the preparation method commonly used for soy proteinbased adhesives, alfalfa leaf protein was used as the raw material to prepare alfalfa leaf protein-based wood adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry analyzer (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize properties of the alfalfa leaf protein-based adhesive in this paper. The results revealed the following: (1) Chemical compositions and chemical structures of the alfalfa leaf protein were basically identical with those of the soy protein, both belonging to spherical proteins with the basis and potential for protein adhesives preparation, and spatial cross-linked network structures would… More
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  • Impregnated Paper-Based Decorative Laminates Prepared from Lignin-Substituted Phenolic Resins
  • Abstract High Pressure Laminates (HPL) panels consist of stacks of self-gluing paper sheets soaked with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins. An important requirement for such PFs is that they must rapidly penetrate and saturate the paper pores. Partially substituting phenol with bio-based phenolic chemicals like lignin changes the physico-chemical properties of the resin and affects its ability to penetrate the paper. In this study, PF formulations containing different proportions of lignosulfonate and kraft lignin were used to prepare paper-based laminates. The penetration of a Kraft paper sheet was characterized by a recently introduced, new device measuring the conductivity between both sides of the… More
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  • No-Aldehydes Glucose/Sucrose-Triacetin-Diamine Wood Adhesives for Particleboard
  • Abstract A three reagents adhesive system for wood particleboards not containing any aldehyde was developed by the reaction of glucose or sucrose with triacetin (glycerin triacetate) and with hexamethylene diamine. The system was found to be based on the mix of three reactions, namely the reaction of (i) glucose with triacetin, (ii) of the diamine with triacetin, and (iii) of glucose with the diamine. The chemical species formed were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. Wood particleboard panels were prepared with this adhesive system and gave good internal bond (IB) strength results suitable for… More
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