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Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany

ISSN:0031-9457(print)
ISSN:1851-5657(online)
Publication Frequency:Monthly

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About Journal

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany is an international journal that publishes research on all aspects of plant science. This journal welcomes original and exciting submissions that provide new and key insights into the origins, growth and development of plants from the molecular to the whole organism and its interactions with the biotic and abiotic environments. Read More

  • REVIEW

    Salinity Stress in Wheat: Effects, Mechanisms and Management Strategies

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 667-694, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017365
    Abstract Salinity stress is a major threat to global food production and its intensity is continuously increasing because of anthropogenic activities. Wheat is a staple food and a source of carbohydrates and calories for the majority of people across the globe. However, wheat productivity is adversely affected by salt stress, which is associated with a reduction in germination, growth, altered reproductive behavior and enzymatic activity, disrupted photosynthesis, hormonal imbalance, oxidative stress, and yield reductions. Thus, a better understanding of wheat (plant) behavior to salinity stress has essential implications to devise counter and alleviation measures to cope with salt stress. Different approaches… More >

  • REVIEW

    Climate Change and Its Adverse Impacts on Plant Growth in South Asia: Current Status and Upcoming Challenges

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 695-711, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018898
    Abstract Socioeconomic development, adaptive capacity of the population, and demographic conditions across the states of South Asia make it more vulnerable to climate change. South Asia is daily going to be more vulnerable to climate change and climatic variability. This region is facing multiple challenges in terms of climate change, dilapidation of ecosystems, and food insecurity. Climate is the primary determining factor for agricultural output, which unswervingly influences food production across the globe. South Asia is mainly an agricultural foundation based region and thus the economy of these regions directly depends on agriculture and agricultural production. Due to the extensive dependence… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Changes in Germination and Seedling Traits of Sesame under Simulated Drought

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 713-726, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018552
    Abstract Drought is considered one of the leading abiotic constraints to agricultural crop production globally. Present study was conducted to assess the effects of different drought treatments (viz. Control, 10% PEG, and 20% PEG) on seed germination, germination indices, seedling traits, and drought tolerance indices of sesame. Our results showed that maximum reduction in the studied parameters was observed at higher PEG concentration (i.e., 20% PEG). As compared to control, the drought treatments viz. 10% and 20% PEG decreased the values for germination indices, such as germination percentage, coefficient of variation of germination time, germination index, and seedling vigor index. Similarly,… More >

  • ARTICLE

    OsMAPK6 Affects Male Fertility by Reducing Microspore Number and Delaying Tapetum Degradation in Oryza sativa L.

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 727-744, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017811
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is important in stress signal transduction and plant development. In the present study, we identified a rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant with reduced fertility, Oryza sativa mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (osmapk6), which harbored a mutated MAPK gene. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR analysis, TUNEL assays, RNA in situ hybridization, longitudinal and transverse histological sectioning, and map-based cloning were performed to characterize the osmapk6 mutant. The gene OsMAPK6 was expressed throughout the plant but predominantly in the microspore mother cells, tapetal cells, and microspores in the anther sac. Compared with the wild type,… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Effects of Salt-Alkaline Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Seedlings

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 745-759, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018933
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate carbohydrate metabolism in rice seedlings subjected to salt-alkaline stress. Two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Changbai 9) and sensitive (Jinongda 138) rice cultivars, grown hydroponically, were subjected to salt-alkaline stress via 50 mM of salt-alkaline solution. The carbohydrate content and the activities of metabolism-related enzymes in the leaves and roots were investigated. The results showed that the contents of sucrose, fructose, and glucose in the leaves and roots increased under salt-alkaline stress. Starch content increased in the leaves but decreased in the roots under salt-alkaline stress. The activities of sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, amylase,… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Overexpression of a Glycosyltransferase Gene from a Metabolically Poly-Resistant Beckmannia syzigachne Population Alters Growth and Confers Herbicide Resistance to Brachypodium distachyon

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 761-772, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018462
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Beckmannia syzigachne is a noxious weed for rice-wheat rotations in China. The B. syzigachne (AH-02) population evolved metabolic resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and mesosulfuron-methyl. To investigate the function of GT73C1 in this population, the GT73C1 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the sequence was 100% consistent with the transcriptome data. Its phylogenetic tree was displayed and annotated using FigTree v1.4.4. The plant overexpression vector of GT73C1 gene was constructed and used to transform Brachypodium distachyon plants. Furthermore, the expression of GT73C1 was significantly induced by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and mesosulfuron-methyl, which was consistent with the findings from the whole plant… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Genome-Wide Analysis of Snapdragon WRKY and VQ Gene Families and Their Expression in Response to Drought and Cold Stresses

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 773-789, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018075
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) is one of the most widely cultivated grass flowers in the world. WRKY transcription factors, VQ proteins and their interactions play crucial roles in plant response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known about WRKY and VQ gene families in snapdragon. In the present study, WRKY and VQ genes and their interactions were comprehensively analyzed in snapdragon using bioinformatics approaches, and their expression in response to drought and cold stresses was examined using real-time PCR. A total of 67 AmWRKY genes were identified in snapdragon, which were classified into different groups or subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis.… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Population Structure Analysis and Genome-Wide Association Study of Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) K untze) Germplasm in Qiannan, China, Based on SLAFSeq Technology

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 791-809, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018104
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Duyun Maojian tea is a famous tea in China. In this study, the specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing method was used to analyze the population structure and conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 2 leaf traits of 123 tea plants in Qiannan, China. A total of 462,019 SLAF tags and 11,362,041 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were obtained. The results of phylogenetic tree analysis, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis showed that 123 tea germplasms were clustered into three groups, and the heterozygosity rates for Groups I, II, and II were 0.206, 0.224, and 0.34, respectively. Generally, tea germplasms in… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Tree Height-Related Hydraulic Strategy to Cope with Freeze-Thaw Stress in Six Common Urban Tree Species in North China

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 811-825, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019386
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Urban trees are sensitive to extreme weather events under climate change. Freeze-thaw induced hydraulic failure could induce urban tree dieback and nullify the services they provide. Plant height is a simple but significant trait for plant ecological strategies. Understanding how urban trees with different heights adapt to freeze-thaw stress is increasingly important under climate change. We investigated the relationship between tree height and stem hydraulic functional traits of six common urban tree species in North China to explore tree height-related hydraulic strategies to cope with freeze-thaw stress. Results showed that tall trees had wider vessels, higher hydraulic conductivity, more winter… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Diversity of Saxicolous Lichens along an Aridity Gradient in Central México

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 827-840, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017929
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Lichens are symbiotic organisms that comprise a fungus and a photosynthetic partner wich are recognized as a good indicator of climate change. However, our understanding of how aridity affects the diversity of saxicolous lichens in drylands is still limited. To evaluate the relationship between saxicolous lichen diversity and aridity in a central México dryland, a geographical transect was established of 100 km to build an aridity gradient in the semiarid zone of the State of Querétaro, Mexico, comprising ten sampling sites with a 10 km separation. Species richness, abundance and diversity of soil lichen species were recorded using two sampling methods: the… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Optimization of Organic Mulches Thickness Improves Soil Moisture Retention under Controlled Conditions

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 841-857, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017938
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Organic mulch can improve the moisture, chemical composition, dust, and dust suppression of soil, and beautify the environment. In view of the rapid evaporation rate and serious loss of soil water in tropical areas, this paper explored the effect of organic mulch materials with different thickness on the increase of soil water retention rate and the improvement of soil water loss caused by evaporation. Rubberwood sawdust (RWS), rubberwood bark (RWB), coconut fiber (CF), and Mulch (MC) were selected as the mulching materials. Field experiment and laboratory experiment were performed, and soil-moisture content and temperature were continuously monitored. However, from the… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Effect of Reaction-Finished Solution of Hydrochar (HRFS) Application on Rice Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Saline Soil

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 859-868, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018396
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Comprehensive Effects of Biochar or other Additives after Applied to Agricultural and Forest Soils)
    Abstract We conducted a pot experiment to examine the feasibility of applying a reaction-finished solution of hydrochar (HRFS) to enhance rice production in a saline soil. With this purpose, HRFS was applied (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mL/pot) and rice yield and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) were determined. HRFS application significantly (P <0.05) increased rice grain yield by 19.6%–30.0% compared to the control treatment (CKU, with N but without HRFS addition). Moreover, HRFS application promoted plant height and straw biomass of rice. Increases of rice yield were mainly achieved by increases in the number of panicles and grains… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Genotype Screening of Recipient Resources with High Regeneration and Transformation Efficiency in Chrysanthemum

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 869-888, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018659
    Abstract Genetic transformation is one of the key steps in the molecular breeding of chrysanthemum, which relies on an optimal regeneration and transformation system. However, the regeneration system of different chrysanthemum cultivars varies, and the regeneration time of most cultivars is long. To screen cultivars with highly efficient regeneration, leaves and shoot tip thin cell layers (tTCL) from eight chrysanthemum cultivars with different flower colors and flower types were cultured on Murashige and Skoog media (MS) supplemented with 1.0–5.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and 0.1–1.0 mg L−1 α-naphthaleneacetic (NAA). The results showed that the most efficient regeneration media were MS +… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Vital Parameters Assessments of Starvation Tolerance of in vitro Populus alba Culture

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 889-902, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018600
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Tree Somatic Embryogenesis and Application)
    Abstract Populus alba is a large woody deciduous plant. The plant has been introduced to shooting, then multiplication of rooting on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. This work was designed to estimate the effect of two factors (low levels of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid NAA and sucrose) on P. alba response resulting in 6 treatments compared to the control, with twelve measured responses. There was a significant difference in some measurements in morphology, like plantlets fresh-weight, shoot-, root-length, and leaf number. In the physiological measurements, there were significant differences in all the measured parameters. The low concentrations of sucrose and media composition/power (MS… More >

  • ERRATUM

    Benzyl Amino Purine and Gibberellic Acid Coupled to Nitrogen-Limited Stress Induce Fatty Acids, Biomass Accumulation, and Gene Expression in Scenedesmus Obliquus

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 903-903, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020625
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • REVIEW

    Plant Derived Antiviral Products for Potential Treatment of COVID-19: A Review

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.3, pp. 438-452, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.010972
    Abstract COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is declared global pandemic. The virus owing high resemblance with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV has been placed in family of beta-coronavirus. However, transmission and infectivity rate of COVID-19 is quite higher as compared to other members of family. Effective management strategy with potential drug availability will break the virus transmission chain subsequently reduce the pressure on the healthcare system. Extensive research trials are underway to develop novel efficient therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we have discussed the origin and family of coronavirus, structure, genome and pathogenesis of virus SARS-CoV-2 inside human host cell; comparison among SARS,… More >

  • REVIEW

    Role of Pathogen-Related Protein 10 (PR 10) under Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Plants

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.2, pp. 167-182, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09359
    Abstract Members of the Pathogenesis Related (PR) 10 protein family have been identified in a variety of plant species and a wide range of functions ranging from defense to growth and development has been attributed to them. PR10 protein possesses ribonuclease (RNase) activity, interacts with phytohormones, involved in hormone-mediated signalling, afforded protection against various phytopathogenic fungi, bacteria, and viruses particularly in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The resistance mechanism of PR10 protein may include activation of defense signalling pathways through possible interacting proteins involved in mediating responses to pathogens, degradation of RNA of the invading pathogens. Moreover, several morphological changes… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Dithiothreitol and PEG Induced Combined Stress May Affect the Expressions of ABA Aldehyde Oxidase, Sucrose Synthase and Proline Metabolic Genes in Maize Seedlings

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.3, pp. 487-495, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08919
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Crop Production under Abiotic Stress: Physiological and Molecular Interventions)
    Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle in the cell where proteins are created and folded. Folding is a very elaborate process that is often interrupted by various biotic and abiotic stresses, leading to the formation of unfolded and misfolded proteins called ER stress. Dithiothreitol (DTT)-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been recently reported in plants. Also, previous studies demonstrated that treatment with polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) could stimulate water deficit in crops. However, further researches should be conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanism of ER stress response and the relationship between water deficiency and ER. In… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Enhancing Drought Tolerance in Wheat through Improving MorphoPhysiological and Antioxidants Activities of Plants by the Supplementation of Foliar Silicon

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.3, pp. 529-539, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09143
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Crop Production under Abiotic Stress: Physiological and Molecular Interventions)
    Abstract The main objective of the research is to assess the role of foliar application of silicon (Si) for enhancing the survival ability of wheat under drought stress through improving its morphology, physicochemical and antioxidants activities. Treatments were five doses of Si at the rate of 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM and a control. After completion of seeds germination, pots were divided into four distinct groups at various field capacity (FC) levels, such as 100% FC (well-irrigated condition), 75% FC (slight water deficit), 50% FC (modest water deficit) and 25% FC (severe water deficit stress condition). Foliar application of Si… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Oxidative Stress Tolerance Mechanism in Rice under Salinity

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.3, pp. 497-517, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09144
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Crop Production under Abiotic Stress: Physiological and Molecular Interventions)
    Abstract The research was conducted to investigate comparative oxidative damage including probable protective roles of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under salinity stress. Seedlings of two rice genotypes: Pokkali (tolerant) and BRRI dhan28 (sensitive) were subjected to 8 dSm−1 salinity stress for seven days in a hydroponic system. We observed significant variation between Pokkali and BRRI dhan28 in phenotypic, biochemical and molecular level under salinity stress. Carotenoid content, ion homeostasis, antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate and glutathione redox system and proline accumulation may help Pokkali to develop defense system during salinity stress. However, the activity antioxidant enzymes particularly… More >

  • ARTICLE

    Genome-Wide Identification of the F-box Gene Family and Expression Analysis under Drought and Salt Stress in Barley

    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.2, pp. 229-251, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.10022
    Abstract The F-box protein-encoding gene family plays an essential role in plant stress resistance. In present study, 126 non-redundant F-box genes were identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., Hv). The corresponding proteins contained 165– 887 amino acid residues and all were amphiphilic, except 5 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of F-box protein sequences in barley and stress-related F-box protein sequences in wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana (At) was used to classify barley F-box genes are divided into 9 subfamilies (A–I). A structure-based sequence alignment demonstrated that F-box proteins were highly conserved with a total of 10 conserved motifs. In total, 124 F-box genes were… More >

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