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Energy Engineering

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Energy Engineering is a bi-monthly peer-reviewed publication. The journal invites researchers, engineers, scientists, technologists, planners, and policy makers to present their original research results and findings on all important energy topics.Read More


    Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 1-16, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017363
    Abstract Fenestration systems are widely used across the world. There is expansive research on window configurations, frames, and glazing technology, but not enough research has been published on reducing window heat loss through heat application to a pane. The presented study attempted to evaluate the performance of heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test a window at various temperatures by varying the power input to the window. Heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel-based ice packs. The other face… More >


    The Effect of a Liquid Cover on the Thermal Performance of a Salinity Gradient Solar Pond: An Experimental Study

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 17-34, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017715
    Abstract Salinity Gradient Solar Ponds (SGSPs) offer the potential to capture and store solar energy for use in a range of domestic and industrial activities in regions with high solar insolation. However, the evaporation of water from these ponds is a significant problem that must be overcome for them to be deployed successfully. Thus, two ponds were constructed in the city of Nasiriya, Iraq. The two ponds were cylindrical with a diameter of 1.4 m and a total depth of 1.4 m. The water body in the two ponds was constructed with layer depths of 0.5, 0.75 and 0.1 m for… More >


    Experimental Research on Mercury Catalytic Oxidation over Ce Modified SCR Catalyst

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 35-47, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.015477
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advancement of Understanding of PM2.5 and Hg Emissions and Their Control Technologies for Cleaner Combustion)
    Abstract In order to improve the ability of SCR catalyst to catalyze the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury, a series of novel Ce modified SCR (Selection Catalytic Reduction, V2O5–WO3/TiO2) catalysts were prepared via two-step ultrasonic impregnation method. The performance of Ce/SCR catalysts on Hg0 oxidation and NO reduction as well as the catalytic mechanism on Hg0 oxidation was also studied. The XRD, BET measurements and XPS were used to characterize the catalysts. The results showed that the pore volume and pore size of catalyst was reduced by Ce doping, and the specific surface area decreased with the increase of Ce content… More >


    Field Studies on the Removal Characteristics of Particulate Matter and SOx in Ultra-Low Emission Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 49-62, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.015622
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advancement of Understanding of PM2.5 and Hg Emissions and Their Control Technologies for Cleaner Combustion)
    Abstract In order to reduce the environmental smog caused by coal combustion, air pollution control devices have been widely used in coal-fired power plants, especially of wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) and wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP). In this work, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and sulfur oxides (SOx) have been studied in a coal-fired power plant. The plant is equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitator, WFGD, WESP. The results show that the PM10 removal efficiencies in WFGD and WESP are 54.34% and 50.39%, respectively, and the overall removal efficiency is 77.35%. WFGD and WESP have… More >


    Field Investigation and Comparison Analysis of Low-Grade Heat Pump Technologies in Building Space Heating Projects

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 63-81, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016209
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Heat Pump Technologies for Renewable Energy Utilization)
    Abstract The building sector contributes a large ratio of final energy consumption, and improving building energy efficiency is expected to play a significant role in mitigating its carbon dioxide emission. Herein, we collected the on-site measurement data to investigate the techno-economic performances of different heat pump types that exist in building space heating projects in Qingdao, China. An in-depth analysis revealed the temperature variations of measured low-grade heat sources over the whole heating supply period, and urban sewage water shows high stable heat energy quality compared with seawater and geothermal heat resources. Operational behaviors including cycling inlet and outlet temperature of… More >


    A Low-Cost, Real-Time Rooftop IoT-Based Photovoltaic (PV) System for Energy Management and Home Automation

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 83-101, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016411
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Energy Systems Management and Climate Change)
    Abstract This work discusses the importance of monitoring and energy management of green energy resources in order to minimize the negative impacts of electricity generation by regular power plants. The paper introduces a highly efficient, low-cost rooftop photovoltaics (PV) solar panel system which can provide monitoring, controlling and automation. The proposed system is based on Internet of Things (IoT) and can be used to control different utilities in any premises automatically or set by the user-defined priority list, as compared to the existing IoT-based PV systems which can only perform monitoring and maintenance of the PV panels or only certain parameters,… More >


    Energy-Related Services as a Business: Eco-Transformation Logic to Support the Low-Carbon Transition

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 103-121, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017709
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Energy Systems Management and Climate Change)
    Abstract The transition to low-carbon development has been recognized as one of the most important directions for the transformation of national economies in most countries. Today we can identify two of the most common service-oriented logical models of this transition. These are models of Service-Dominant Logic and Product-Service Systems that are used in this study to create a service-oriented platform for stimulating business development in the field of energy-related (ER) services. The establishment of such a platform is being considered based on the conceptual provisions of the global business ecosystem. Such a platform has been found to be a powerful tool… More >


    A Review of Research Status and Scientific Problems of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 123-143, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016034
    Abstract With the continuous utilization of offshore wind resources, the installation depth and capacity of offshore wind turbines are increasing. In order to meet construction requirements of renewable energy, offshore wind farms are bound to develop further and deeper into the sea. As a result, a novel kind of power generation equipment, Floating Offshore Wind Turbines (FOWT), emerges as the times require. Consequently, this paper provides an objective comment on some key scientific difficulties. Firstly, The statistics and forecast of the market demand and installed capacity of offshore wind energy show a steady growth. After that, the advantages of constructing FOWT… More >


    Enhanced Atom Search Optimization Based Optimal Control Parameter Tunning of PMSG for MPPT

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 145-161, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.015910
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract For the past few years, wind energy is the most popular non-traditional resource among renewable energy resources and it’s significant to make full use of wind energy to realize a high level of generating power. Moreover, diverse maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods have been designed for varying speed operation of wind energy conversion system (WECS) applications to obtain optimal power extraction. Hence, a novel and meta-heuristic technique, named enhanced atom search optimization (EASO), is designed for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based WECS, which can be employed to track the maximum power point. One of the most promising… More >


    Sustainability Evaluation of Modern Photovoltaic Agriculture Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS and Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Fireworks Algorithm

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 163-188, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017396
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Energy Development under Climate Change)
    Abstract Photovoltaics (PV) has been combined with many other industries, such as agriculture. But there are many problems for the sustainability of PV agriculture. Timely and accurate sustainability evaluation of modern photovoltaic agriculture is of great significance for accelerating the sustainable development of modern photovoltaic agriculture. In order to improve the timeliness and accuracy of evaluation, this paper proposes an evaluation model based on interval type-2 Fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS and least squares support vector machine optimized by fireworks algorithm. Firstly, the criteria system of modern photovoltaic agriculture sustainability is constructed from three dimensions including technology sustainability, economic sustainability and social sustainability. Then,… More >


    Effects of Spark Energy on Spark Plug Fault Recognition in a Spark Ignition Engine

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 189-199, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017843
    Abstract The increasing demands for fuel economy and emission reduction have led to the development of lean/diluted combustion strategies for modern Spark Ignition (SI) engines. The new generation of SI engines requires higher spark energy and a longer discharge duration to improve efficiency and reduce the backpressure. However, the increased spark energy gives negative impacts on the ignition system which results in deterioration of the spark plug. Therefore, a numerical model was used to estimate the spark energy of the ignition system based on the breakdown voltage. The trend of spark energy is then recognized by implementing the classification method. Significant… More >


    Effect of Flow Field Geometry on Hydrodynamics of Flow in Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 201-217, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016597
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Materials and Technologies for Sustainable Energy)
    Abstract This study computationally investigates the hydrodynamics of different serpentine flow field designs for redox flow batteries, which considers the Poiseuille flow in the flow channel and the Darcy flow porous substrate. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results of the in-house developed code based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) for conventional serpentine flow field (CSFF) agreed well with those obtained via experiment. The deviation for pressure drop was less than 5.1% for all the flow rates, thus proving the present CFD analysis’s validity on the modified variation of serpentine flow fields. Modified serpentine flow field-2 (MSFF2) design provided least pressure drop across… More >


    Research on Flashover Voltage Prediction of Catenary Insulator Based on CaSO Pollution with Different Mass Fraction

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 219-236, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016899
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Role of Artificial Intelligence for Modeling and Optimizing the Energy Systems )

    Pollution flashover accidents occur frequently in railway OCS in saline-alkali areas. To accurately predict the pollution flashover voltage of insulators, a pollution flashover warning should be made in advance. According to the operating environment of insulators along the Qinghai-Tibet railway, the pollution flashover experiments were designed for the cantilever composite insulator FQBG-25/12. Through the experiments, the flashover voltage under the influence of soluble contaminant density (SCD) of different pollution components, non-soluble deposit density (NSDD), temperature (T), and atmospheric pressure (P) was obtained. On this basis, the GA-BP neural network prediction model was established. P, SCD, NSDD, CaSO4 mass fraction (w(CaSO4)),… More >


    Inferential Statistics and Machine Learning Models for Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 237-252, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017916
    Abstract The inherent randomness, intermittence and volatility of wind power generation compromise the quality of the wind power system, resulting in uncertainty in the system's optimal scheduling. As a result, it's critical to improve power quality and assure real-time power grid scheduling and grid-connected wind farm operation. Inferred statistics are utilized in this research to infer general features based on the selected information, confirming that there are differences between two forecasting categories: Forecast Category 1 (0–11 h ahead) and Forecast Category 2 (12–23 h ahead). In z-tests, the null hypothesis provides the corresponding quantitative findings. To verify the final performance of… More >


    A Novel Energy Lifting Approach Using J-Function and Flow Zone Indicator for Oil Fields

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 253-273, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017820
    Abstract The X field is located in the southwestern part of block NX89 of Kentan Basin in Libya. This field is produced from Hailan multilayer consolidated sandstone with moderate rock property and a relatively low energy supplying. The reserve of subsurface energy sources is declining with years. Therefore, techniques were combined to achieve the energy optimization and increase hydrocarbon recovery. In order to understand the subsurface formation of the reservoir and facilitate oil production, global hydraulic element technique was used to quantify the reservoir rock types. In addition, stratigraphic modified Lorenz plot was used for reservoir layering. Reservoir heterogeneity was identified… More >


    The Use of Single-Phase Immersion Cooling by Using Two Types of Dielectric Fluid for Data Center Energy Savings

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 275-286, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017356
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Modern Electric Power and Energy Systems)
    Abstract Data centers are recognized as one of the most important aspects of the fourth industrial revolution since conventional data centers are inefficient and have dependency on high energy consumption, in which the cooling is responsible for 40% of the usage. Therefore, this research proposes the immersion cooling method to solving the high energy consumption of data centers by cooling its component using two types of dielectric fluids. Four stages of experimental methods are used, such as fluid types, cooling effectiveness, optimization, and durability. Furthermore, benchmark software is used to measure the CPU maximum work with the temperature data performed for… More >


    Investigation of Inverter Temperature Prediction Model in Wind Farm Based on SCADA Data

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 287-300, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.014718
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advancements in Renewable Energy Systems with AI, Big Data, BlockChain, IoT, and Machine Learning Applications)
    Abstract The inverter is one of the key components of wind turbine, and it is a complex circuit composed of a series of components such as a variety of electronic components and power devices. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately identify the operation states of inverter and some problems regarding its own circuit, especially in the early stages of failure. However, if the inverter temperature prediction model can be established, the early states can be identified through the judgment of the output temperature. Accordingly, considering whether the inverter heats up normally from the perspective of heat dissipation, a method for the… More >


    Fuzzy-TOPSIS Evaluation of Power Product-Service System: A Framework Driven by Big Data

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 301-314, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.014877
    Abstract Power product-service system (power PSS), which combines industrial electric products with electric energy services, is an effective solution for power enterprises under the background of the rapid development of power systems. In the life cycle of power PSS, evaluation decision of power PSS alternatives is of great significance for subsequent implementation. To address the power PSS alternative evaluation problem, a power PSS evaluation framework is explored driven by the big data of stakeholder comments. Based on the multi-stakeholder comments of power PSS evaluation decision’s influence factors, the index system is constructed through analyzing and summarizing the co-occurrence matrix and semantic… More >


    Discount Rate of China’s New Energy Power Industry

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 315-329, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.015485
    Abstract Under the dual pressures of energy crisis and environmental pollution, China’s new energy power industry has become a focal point for environmental management and requires greater investment. In this context, as a significant input of investment projects, discount rate requires a well-calibrated evaluation because new energy power investment projects are highly capital intensive. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the discount rate of China’s new energy power industry. First, we use Moving Average to correct the parameters of capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and weighted average cost of capital, which extends the literature on the avoidance of… More >


    Evaluation of Green Development Level of Electric Energy in Distribution Network Based on Multilevel Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 331-357, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.015700
    Abstract At present, there are few studies on the comprehensive evaluation of green power grid development in China, and all aspects of green power grid need to be evaluated. Therefore, this paper studies the green development level of power distribution network. This paper proposes a multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, which first needs to classify the influencing factors. Therefore, this paper constructs an indicator system for the evaluation of green development of power distribution network from three dimensions. In order to avoid the influence of subjective factors, this paper adopts the model combining analytic hierarchy process and entropy weight method to… More >


    Using Grey Target Theory for Power Quality Evaluation Based on Power Quality Monitoring Data

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 359-369, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.015397
    Abstract Smart grid puts forward higher requirements for power quality. Power quality evaluation can provide a decision-making basis for quality improvement. Based on power quality monitoring data, a grey target method is proposed for power quality evaluation. The grey target is composed of power quality evaluation standard and power quality monitoring data to be evaluated. Combining with the characteristics of each power quality evaluation index, the target center of the whole grey target system is found. Then, the power quality monitoring data to be evaluated and the power quality standard mode are compared and analyzed to construct the power quality grey… More >


    Development of Transient Electric Field Radiation Simulation Device during Gas Insulation Switch Operation

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 371-385, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016141
    Abstract In gas insulation switch (GIS) substation, secondary devices such as line monitoring devices are placed in the switching field, and these electronic devices are vulnerable to transient electromagnetic interference caused by switching operation. In order to facilitate the measurement and research of electromagnetic disturbance data under different working conditions, a simulation test device is developed in this paper, which can be used to simulate electromagnetic disturbance of GIS substation sensor and secondary device port under switch operation. A four-channel parallel gas switch was designed, and the main characteristic parameters of electromagnetic disturbance generated by the simulation device were measured by… More >


    Research on the Intelligent Control Strategy of the Fuel Cell Phase-Shifting Full-Bridge Power Electronics DC-DC Converter

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 387-405, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.017463
    Abstract With the aggravation of energy problems, the development and utilization of new energy has become the focus of all countries. As an effective new energy, the fuel cell has attracted the attention of scholars. However, due to the particularity of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the performance of traditional PI controlled phase-shifted full-bridge power electronics DC-DC converter cannot meet the needs of practical application. In order to further improve the dynamic performance of the converter, this paper first introduces several main topologies of the current mainstream front-end DC-DC converter, and analyzes their performance in the fuel cell system. Then,… More >


    Initiation Mechanism of Transverse Cracks in Wind Turbine Blade Trailing Edge

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 407-418, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016439
    Abstract Transverse crack often occurs in the trailing edge region of the blade when subjected to the excessive edgewise fatigue load. In this paper a refined model was established through local mesh refinement methods in order to investigate the initiation mechanism of crack and its extension in blade trailing edge. The material stress around the crack in trailing edge region under different thicknesses is calculated based on the fracture mechanics theory. The factors affecting the fatigue robustness of blade trailing edge are concluded by investigating the results of finite element analysis and coupons test. Compared with the laminate, the lower fatigue… More >


    Impact of Flow Rate in Integration with Solar Radiation on Color and COD Removal in Dye Contaminated Textile Industry Wastewater: Optimization Study

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 419-427, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.016973
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Materials and Technologies for Sustainable Energy)
    Abstract Dyes are an integral part of the dying industry and have significantly resulted in environmental pollution by altering the standard water quality after their discharge into the water bodies. The culprits behind the altered water quality are the pretreatment chemicals used during dying manufacturing processes. Various advanced treatment methods using conventional and advanced treatment options including solar energy have been put forth by researchers for the treatment of the dying effluents but, these methods have not proved significantly considerable. Therefore, the present study intends to check the efficiency of solar parabolic trough collector for treating the dying effluents in terms… More >


    Pressure-Induced Instability Characteristics of a Transient Flow and Energy Distribution through a Loosely Bent Square Duct

    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 429-451, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.018145
    Abstract Due to widespread applications of the bent ducts in engineering fields such as in chemical, mechanical, bio-mechanical and bio-medical engineering, scientists have paid considerable attention to invent new characteristics of fluid flow in a bent duct (BD). In the ongoing study, a spectral-based numerical technique is applied to explore flow characteristics and energy distribution through a loosely bent square duct (BSD) of small curvature. Flow is accelerated due to combined action of the non-dimensional parameters; the Grashof number Gr (=1000), the curvature (=0.001), and the Prandtl number Pr (=7.0) over a wide domain of the Dean number . Fortran code… More >


    Experimental Study on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids in a Triangular Tube at Different Rotation Angles

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.2, pp. 63-78, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.010433
    Abstract Because of the poor thermal performance of ordinary tubes, a triangular tube was used to replace the smooth channel in the heat transfer system, and nanofluids were used to take the place of ordinary fluids as the heat transfer medium. High stability nanofluids were prepared, and an experimental set on flow and heat exchange was established. Effects of triangular tube rotation angles (α = 0°, 30°, 60°) as well as mass fractions of nanofluids (ω = 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%) on heat exchange and flow performance were experimentally considered at Reynolds numbers (Re = 800–8000). It was shown that the triangular… More >


    Performance and Cost Analysis of Energy Production from Offshore Wind Turbines

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.1, pp. 41-47, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.010412
    Abstract Offshore wind turbine is analyzed theoretically and experimentally for improving wind energy harvesting. The energy produced is calculated at different wind speeds. The wind speed curve is generated by measuring the wind speed on daily base for one year. Curves that show the power extraction for experimental study and from the theoretical calculations are generated. The energy production investigation is expanded over a period of 15 years after comparing the annual energy production in theory and practice. The study shows the cost of electricity over the same time period assuming different interest rates. Three time intervals are shown that are… More >


    Research on the Measurement and Countermeasure of Coal Overcapacity in China: Based on Panel Data of 25 Provinces in China

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.1, pp. 27-39, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.010372
    Abstract Coal is the main energy source in China. At present, the coal overcapacity is still serious in China. Accurately measuring the degree of China’s coal overcapacity can scientifically resolve the overcapacity, and is the premise of guiding the healthy development of coal industry and energy system. Using the translog cost function and the panel data of coal industry in all provinces of China from 2002 to 2011 and from 2012 to 2016, the research measures and compares the coal production capacity of “golden decade” and “cold winter” in China. The results show that: (1) The change of coal production capacity… More >


    Experimental Study on Modal and Harmonic Analysis of Small Wind Turbine Blades Using NACA 63-415 Aerofoil Cross-Section

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.2, pp. 49-61, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.010666
    Abstract This work focused on modal and harmonic analysis of small wind turbine blades taken from the NACA 63415 series. The sandwich structure type composite blade is fabricated from GFRP and epoxy with Uni-vinyl hard foams of different alignments as stiffeners. In this work, the modal and harmonic analysis of different varieties of blades like solid, hallow and rectangular alignment blades is carried out by the finite element method using ANSYS 18.1 software. From Finite Element Analysis, the natural frequencies, amplitudes and mode shapes are obtained. Based on the working principle of wind turbine blades, the boundary conditions are applied. The… More >


    Energy Efficiency Effectiveness of Smart Thermostat Based BEMS

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.4, pp. 165-183, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.011406
    Abstract The research details the design and development of a spreadsheet based software system that has been built using the principles of Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation has been applied to a residential building with a certain number of rooms, each with specific characteristics pertaining to volume, occupancy, and thermostat set point. The consideration of variables related to the building envelope and weather, and the HVAC system have provided a realistic view that enables the accurate estimation of annual energy usage and costs. The main findings of the research are reflected in the sensitivity analysis that estimates energy use and cost… More >


    Unsteady Natural Convection within an Attic-Shaped Space Subject to Sinusoidal Heat Flux on Inclined Walls

    Energy Engineering, Vol.117, No.1, pp. 1-17, 2020, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.010418
    Abstract Free convection inside an attic enclosure in which sinusoidal heat flux applied on the inclined walls and a constant temperature applied on the base wall has been investigated numerically to demonstrate the primary flow characteristics and heat transfer within the attic enclosure over daily routine cycles. To solve the governing equations, the finite volume technique has been utilized. After performing the grid independency and time step size tests, the roles of Rayleigh number (Ra) and the attic aspect ratio (AR) on the unsteady flow structure and heat transfer phenomenon are explained for a constant Prandtl number (0.72) for the air.… More >

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